EMOTIONS AND REASONING IN MORAL DECISION MAKING

V. V. Nadurak

Abstract


Purpose of the research is the study of relationship between emotional and rational factors in moral decisions making. Methodology. The work is primarily based on the analysis and synthesis of the main empirical studies of the problem, each of which uses the methods of those sciences in which they were conducted (neurosciences). Originality. In general, the process of moral decision making cannot be described by a single simple model that would see only emotional or rational factor in foundation of this process. Moral decision making is characterized by different types of interaction between emotions and rational considerations. The influence of emotional and rational factors on moral decision is nonlinear: moral decision, which person makes, isn’t proportional to those emotions that preceded it and isn't unambiguously determined by them, because rational reasoning and contextual factors can significantly change it. Similarly, the reasoning that precede the decision is not necessarily reflected in the decision, because it can be significantly corrected by those emotions that accompany it. Conclusions. The process of moral decision making involves complex, heterogeneous interaction between emotional and rational factors. There are three main types of such interaction: first, the reasoning serves to rationalize prior emotional response; second, there are cases when reasoning precedes emotional reactions and determines it; third, interaction between these factors is characterized by cyclic causality (emotion impacts reasoning, which in turn impacts emotions). The influence of emotions or rational reasoning on moral decision is nonlinear. 


Keywords


moral decision; emotions; reasoning; neuroscience; nonlinearity

References


Nadurak V. Systema suspilnoi morali: synerhetychnyi pidkhid [The system of social morality: synergetic approach]. Ivano-Frankivsk, Vydavnytstvo Prykarpatskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Vasylia Stefanyka Publ., 2014. 230 p.

Alfano M., Don L. Experimental Moral Philosophy. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at: URL : plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2016/entries/experimental-moral/. (Accessed 21 September 2016).

Greene J.D., Sommerville R.B., Nystrom L.E., Darley J.M. Cohen J.D. An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment. Science, 2001, vol. 293, рр. 2105-2108. doi: 10.1126/science.1062872

Baron R.A. The sweet smell of … helping: Effects of pleasant ambient fragrance on prosocial behavior in shopping malls. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1997, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 498-503. doi: 10.1177/0146167297235005

Bloom P. How do morals change? Nature, 2010, vol. 464, pp. 90. doi: 10.1038/464490a

Cunningham M.R. Weather, mood, and helping behavior: Quasi experiments with the sunshine samaritan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1979, vol. 37, no. 11, pp.1947-1956. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.37.11.1947

D'Arms J., Jacobson D. Introduction. Moral Psychology and Human Agency: Philosophical Essays on the Science of Ethics. Oxford, Oxford Universtiy Press Publ., 2014, рp. 1-8. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717812.001.0001

D'Arms J., Jacobson D. Sentimentalism and Scientism. Moral Psychology and Human Agency: Philosophical Essays on the Science of Ethics. Oxford, Oxford Universtiy Press, 2014. pр. 253-278. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717812.001.0001

Koenigs M., Young L., Adolphs R., Tranel D., Cushman F., Hauser M., Damasio A. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements. Nature, 2007, vol. 446, pp. 908-911. doi: 10.1038/nature05631

Decety J. The neuroevolution of empathy. Аnnals of the New York academy of sciences. Issue: Social Neuroscience: Gene, Environment, Brain, Body, 2011, vol. 1231, pp. 35-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06027.x

Moll J., de Oliveira-Souza R., Bramati I. E. Grafman J. Functional networks in emotional moral and nonmoral social judgments. Neuroimage, 2002, vol. 16, pp. 696-703. doi: 10.1006/nimg.2002.1118

Greene J.D. Beyond Point-and-Shoot Morality: Why Cognitive (Neuro) Science Matters for Ethics. Ethics, 2014, vol. 24, no. 4, рр. 695-726. doi: 10.1086/675875

Haidt J., Kesebir S. Morality. Handbook of Social Psychology. Volume 2. Hoboken, New Jersey, Wiley Publ., 2010, pp. 797-832.

Hayek F.A. The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism. London, Routledge Publ., 2013. 192 p.

Helion C. Pizarro D.A. Beyond dual-processes: The interplay of reason and emotion in moral judgment. Springer Handbook for Neuroethics, Springer Science, Business Media Dordrecht Publ., 2015, рр. 109-125. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-4707-4_160

Kauppinen A. Moral Sentimentalism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at: URL : plato.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/encyclopedia/archinfo.cgi?entry=moral-sentimentalism. (Accessed 21 September 2016).

Kelly D. Yuck! : the nature and moral significance of disgust. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press Pbl., 2011. 194 p.

Anderson S.W., Bechara A., Damasio H., Tranel D., Damasio A.R. Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 1999, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 1032-1037.

Mendez M.F., Anderson E., Shapira J.S. An investigation of moral judgment in frontotemporal dementia. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 2005, vol. 18, issue 4, pp. 193-197.

Bartels D.M., Bauman C.W., Cushman F.A., Pizarro D.A., McGraw A.P. Moral Judgment and Decision Making. The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making. Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell Publ., 2015, рр. 479-516. doi: 10.1002/9781118468333

Nichols S. Sentimental Rules: On the Natural Foundations of Moral Judgment. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press Publ., 2004. 226 p.

North A. C., Tarrant M., Hargreaves D. J. The effects of music on helping behavior: A field study. Environment and Behavior, 2004, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 266-275. doi: 10.1177/0013916503256263

The Blackwell guide to ethical theory. Second edition. Hoboken, Wiley Blackwell Publ., 2013. 518 p.

Rosenhan D. L., Underwood B., Moore B. Affect moderates self-gratification and altruism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 546-552. doi: 10.1037/h0037038

Luo Q., Nakic M.,Wheatley T., Richell R., Martin A., Blair R. The neural basis of implicit moral attitude – An IAT study using eventrelated fMRI. Neuroimage, 2006, vol. 30, рр. 1449-1457. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.11.005

Valdesolo P., DeSteno D. Manipulations of emotional context shape moral judgment. Psychological Science, 2006, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 476-477. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01731.x

Wheatley T., Haidt, J. Hypnotic disgust makes moral judgments more severe. Psychological Science, 2005, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 780-784. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01614.x

Zak P. Moral markets. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2011, vol. 77, pp. 212-233.

Zak P. The physiology of moral sentiments. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2011, vol. 77, no.1, pp. 53-65.


GOST Style Citations


  1. Надурак, В. Система суспільної моралі: синергетичний підхід / В. Надурак. – Івано-Франківськ : Вид-во Прикарпатського нац. ун-ту ім. В. Стефаника, 2014. – 230 с.
  2. Alfano, M. Experimental Moral Philosophy [Електронний ресурс] / M. Alfano, D. Loeb // The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. – Режим доступу: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2016/entries/experimental-moral/. – Назва з екрана. – Перевірено : 06.12.2016.
  3. An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment / J. D. Greene, B. R. Sommerville, L. E. Nystrom et al. // Science. – 2001. – Vol. 293, Iss. 5537. – P. 2105-2108. doi: 10.1126/science.1062872
  4. Baron, R. A. The sweet smell of … helping: Effects of pleasant ambient fragrance on prosocial behavior in shopping malls / R. A. Baron // Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. – 1997. – Vol. 23, Iss. 5 – Р. 498 – 503. doi: 10.1177/0146167297235005
  5. Bloom, P. How do morals change? / P. Bloom // Nature. – 2010. – Vol. 464, Iss. 7288. – P. 490. doi: 10.1038/464490a
  6. Cunningham, M. R. Weather, mood, and helping behavior: Quasi experiments with the sunshine samaritan / M. R. Cunningham // Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. – 1979. – Vol. 37, Iss. 11. – Р. 1947-1956. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.37.11.1947
  7. D'Arms, J. Introduction / J. D'Arms, D. Jacobson // Moral Psychology and Human Agency: Philosophical Essays on the Science of Ethics. – Oxford : Oxford Universtiy Press, 2014. – Р. 1-8. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717812.001.0001
  8. D'Arms, J. Sentimentalism and Scientism / J. D'Arms, D. Jacobson // Moral Psychology and Human Agency: Philosophical Essays on the Science of Ethics. – Oxford : Oxford Universtiy Press, 2014. – Р. 253-278. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717812.001.0001
  9. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements / M. Koenigs, L. Young, R. Adolphs et al. // Nature. – 2007. – Vol. 446, Iss. 7138. – P. 908-911. doi: 10.1038/nature05631
  10. Decety, J. The neuroevolution of empathy / J. Decety // Аnnals of the New York academy of sciences., Body. – 2011. – Vol. 1231, Iss.: Social Neuroscience: Gene, Environment, Brain. – Р. 35-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06027.x
  11. Functional networks in emotional moral and nonmoral social judgments / J. Moll, R. de Oliveira-Souza, I. E. Bramati, J. Grafman // Neuroimage. – 2002. – Volume 16. – P. 696-703. doi: 10.1006/nimg.2002.1118
  12. Greene, J. D. Beyond Point-and-Shoot Morality: Why Cognitive (Neuro) Science Matters for Ethics / J. D. Greene // Ethics. – 2014. – Vol. 24, No. 4. – P. 695-726. doi: 10.1086/675875
  13. Haidt, J. Morality / J. Haidt, S. Kesebir // Handbook of Social Psychology. – Hoboken, New Jersey : Wiley, 2010. – Vol. 2. – P. 797–832.
  14. Hayek, F. A. The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism / F. A. Hayek. – New York : Routledge, 2013. – 192 p.
  15. Helion, C. Beyond dual-processes: The interplay of reason and emotion in moral judgment / C. Helion, D. A. Pizarro // Handbook for Neuroethics. – Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands, 2015. – Р. 109-125. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-4707-4_160
  16. Kauppinen, A. Moral Sentimentalism [Електронний ресурс] / A. Kauppinen // The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . – Режим доступу: http://plato.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/encyclopedia/archinfo.cgi?entry=moral-sentimentalism. – Назва з екрана. – Перевірено : 06.12.2016.
  17. Kelly D. Yuck!: the nature and moral significance of disgust / D. Kelly. – Cambridge. : MIT Press, 2011. – 194 p.
  18. Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex / S. W. Anderson, A. Bechara, A. Damasio et al. // Nature Neuroscience. – 1999. – Vol. 2, №11. – P. 1032–1037.
  19. Mendez, M. F. An investigation of moral judgment in frontotemporal dementia / M. F. Mendez, E. Anderson, J. S. Shapira // Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology. – 2005. – Vol. 18, Iss. 4. – P. 193-197.
  20. Moral Judgment and Decision Making / D. M. Bartels, C. W. Bauman, F. A. Cushman, et al. // The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making. – Chichester, West Sussex : Wiley-Blackwell, 2015. – P. 479-516. doi: 10.1002/9781118468333
  21. Nichols, S. Sentimental Rules: On the Natural Foundations of Moral Judgment / S. Nichols. – Oxford; New York : Oxford University Press, 2004. – 226 p.
  22. North, A. C. The effects of music on helping behavior: a field study / A. C. North, M. Tarrant, D. J. Hargreaves // Environment and Behavior. – 2004. – Vol. 36, Iss. 2. – Р. 266-275. doi: 10.1177/0013916503256263
  23. The Blackwell guide to ethical theory. Second edition / ed. by H. LaFollette, I. Persson. – Hoboken : Wiley Blackwell, 2013. – 518 p.
  24. Rosenhan, D. L. Affect moderates self-gratification and altruism / D. L. Rosenhan, B. Underwood, B. Moore // Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. – 1974. – Vol. 30, Iss. 4 – Р. 546-552. doi: 10.1037/h0037038
  25. The neural basis of implicit moral attitude – An IAT study using eventrelated fMRI / Q. Luo, M. Nakic, T. Wheatley et al. // Neuroimage. – 2006. – Vol. 30. – P. 1449-1457. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.11.005
  26. Valdesolo, P. Manipulations of emotional context shape moral judgment / P. Valdesolo, D. DeSteno // Psychological Science. – 2006. – Vol. 17, Iss. 6. – Р. 476-477. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01731.x
  27. Wheatley, T. Hypnotic disgust makes moral judgments more severe / T. Wheatley, J. Haidt // Psychological Science. – 2005. – Vol. 16, Iss. 10. – P. 780-784. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01614.x
  28. Zak, P. J. Moral markets / P. J. Zak // Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. – 2011. – Vol. 77, Iss. 2. – P. 212-233.
  29. Zak, P. J. The physiology of moral sentiments / P. J. Zak // Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. – 2011. – Vol. 77, Iss. 1. – P. 53-65.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i10.87057

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.