I. V. Karivets


Purpose. The author will show that metaphysical concepts and the concepts of empirical sciences derive from experience. The only difference is that metaphysical concepts derive from unusual experience, i.e. out-of-body experience, while empirical sciences – from usual one. The example set metaphysical concept of pure being. Methodology. In order to obtain this goal the author uses two methods. The first one is comparative method. With the help of this method the stories of men who experienced clinical death and returned to life are compared with the famous philosophers’ metaphysical statements (Plato, Descartes, and Bonaventura). The second one is transpersonal method. It helps to study the peculiarities of the extraordinary experience in the state of clinical death or mystical ecstasy. Such experience lies in experience of transcendence, pure being as light, ultimate awareness of truth, which are identical to the metaphysical statements of philosophers and mystics. These ultimate experiences belong to different people, who lived and grown in different cultures, but nevertheless metaphysical statements of philosophers or mystics and statements of the ordinary people who experienced clinical death are the same. Therefore we can say that out-of-body experience is transpersonal. Originality. Metaphysics is neither speculative nor withdrawn from experience of a human being sphere. It arises from out-of-body experience while empirical sciences – from usual experience. Therefore, metaphysical concepts, in particular, pure being, are empirical, because they are based also on (extraordinary) experience. In general, metaphysics becomes possible on the basis of out-of-body experience. Conclusions. In this article the author argues that the concepts of metaphysics are not a priori because they originate from out-of-body experience that is from the experience of the distinction between body and soul or body and mind. As a result of such experience appear, for instance, Plato’s metaphysics, Descartes’ metaphysics, and the Christian mysticism of Bonaventure, which theoretical constructs are deriving from experience of pure being (light). In this context metaphysics is seen as the path of gradual separation of a human being from his or her physical body, i.e. “the art of dying” (Plato). Therefore, the author proves that there are no a priori concepts. All concepts are aposteriori, in empirical sciences and in metaphysics as well. We simply talk about two different experiences: usual and unusual experience. The author also argues that there is direct connection between out of body experience and metaphysics, mystics. In the case of out-of-body experience, the temporary death of a human being is the cause of his/her change in perception of himself/herself and the world; it is the cause of metaphysical knowledge. 


out-of-body experience; metaphysics; pure being; light; dying; clinical death; ecstasy; contemplation


Bonaventure. Putivnyk mysli do Boha. Pro pryvedennia mystetstv do bohoslovia [Journey of the Soul into God. On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology]. Lviv, Vydavnytstvo Ukrainskoho katolytskoho universytetu Publ., 2014, 170 p.

Descartes Rene. Medytatsii pro pershu filosofiiu (Metafizychni medytatsii) [Meditations on the First Philosophy (Metaphysical Meditations)]. Kyiv, Dukh i Litera Publ., 2014, pp.115-292.

Kant I. Krytyka chystoho rozumu [Critique of Pure Reason]. Kyiv, Univers Publ., 2000, 504 p.

Karivets I. Liudyna yak perekhidna istota, abo pro vytoky pozamezhnosti [A Human being as Transitive Entity or the Sources of the Transcendence]. Available at: (Accessed 21 September 2016).

Katrechko S.L. Kak vozmozhna metafizika: na puti k nauchnoy [transtsendentalnoy] metafizike [How Metaphysics is Possible: On the Way to Scientific [Transcendental] Metaphysics]. Voprosy Filosofii – Issues of Philosophy, 2012, no. 3. Available at: ?option=com_content&task= view&id=489&Itemid=52. (Accessed 20 August 2016).

Petrushenko V.L. Nachala metafiziki (Obzor istorii i problematika) [The Beginnings of Metaphysics (Review of History and the Problems)]. Dnipropetrovsk, “FLP Seredniak T.K.” Publ., 2014, 320 p.

Plato. Derzhava [Republic]. Kyiv, Osnovy Publ., 2000, 355 p.

Plato. Fedon. Plato. Dialohy [Plato. Phaedo. Plato. Dialogues]. Kyiv, Osnovy Pubol., 1999, pp. 234-292.

Buhlman William. The Secret of the Soul. San Francisco, HarperCollins Publ., 2001, 271 p.

Cattoi Thomas & Moreman M. Christopher. Death, Dying, and Mysticism. The Ecstasy of the End. New York, Palgrave Macmillan Publ., 2015, 281 p.

Engmann Birk. Near-Death Experiences. Heavenly Insight or Human Illusion? Dordrecht, Springer Publ., 2014. 150 p.

Lommel Pim van. Consciousness beyond Life: The Science of Near-Death Experience. New York, Harper Collins e-books Publ., 2010. 593 p.

Marsh Michael. Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experience. Brain-State Phenomena or Glimpses of Immortality? Oxford, Oxford University Press Publ., 2010, 309 p.

Tart Charles. The End of Materialism. Oakland, New Hanbirger Publ., 2009, 285 p.

Vincent Ken R. God is With Us. What Near-Death and Other Spiritually Transformative Experiences Teach Us About God and Afterlife. Carmichael, 2014, 170 p.

GOST Style Citations

  1. Бонавентура. Путівник мислі до Бога. Про приведення мистецтв до богослов’я / Перекл. з латинської мови, вступ, коментарі Ірина Піговська. – Львів : Вид-во Укр. католиц. ун-ту, 2014. – lxiі, 170 с.
  2. Декарт, Рене. Медитації про першу філософію (Метафізичні медитації) / Рене Декарт // «Медитації» Декарта у дзеркалі сучасних тлумачень: Жан-Марі Бейсад, Жан-Люк Марйон, Кім Сан Он-Ван-Кун / Пер. з фр. і лат. – Київ : Дух і Літера, 2014. – С. 115-292
  3. Кант, І. Критика чистого розуму / І. Кант [Пер. з нім. і приміт. І. Бурковського]. – Київ : Юніверс, 2000. – 504 с.
  4. Карівець, І. Людина як перехідна істота, або про витоки позамежності [Електронний ресурс] / І. Карівець. – 2005. – Режим доступу: – Назва з екрана. – Перевірено : 06.12.2016.
  5. Катречко, С. Л. Как возможна метафизика: на пути к научной [трансцендентальной] метафизике [Електронний ресурс] / С. Л. Катречко // Вопросы философии. – 2012. – №3. – Режим доступу: – Назва з екрана. – Перевірено : 06.12.2016.
  6. Петрушенко, В. Л. Начала метафизики (Обзор истории и проблематики) / В. Л. Петрушенко. – Днепропетровск : «ФЛП Середняк Т. К.», 2014. – 320 с.
  7. Платон. Держава / Пер. з давньогр. Д. Коваль. – Київ : Основи, 2000. – 355 с.
  8. Платон. Федон // Платон. Діалоги / Пер. з давньогр. – Київ : Основи, 1999. – С. 234-292
  9. Buhlman, W. The Secret of the Soul / W. Buhlman. – San Francisco : HarperCollins Publisher, 2001. – 271 p.
  10. Death, Dying, and Mysticism. The Ecstasy of the End / Edited by Thomas Cattoi & Christopher M. – New York : Moreman, 2015. – 281 p.
  11. Engmann, B. Near-Death Experiences. Heavenly Insight or Human Illusion? / B. Engmann – Dordrecht : Springer, 2014. – 150 p.
  12. Lommel, P. van. Consciousness beyond Life: The Science of Near-Death Experience / P. van Lommel. – New York : Harper Collins, 2010. – 593 p.
  13. Marsh, M. N. Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experience. Brain-State Phenomena or Glimpses of Immortality? / M. N. Marsh. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2010, – 309 p.
  14. Tart, C. T. The End of Materialism: How Evidence of the Paranormal Is Bringing Science & Spirit Together / C. T. Tart. Oakland : Ions/New Harbinger Publications, 2009. – 285 p.
  15. Vincent, K. R. God is With Us. What Near-Death and Other Spiritually Transformative Experiences Teach Us About God and Afterlife / K. R. Vincent. – Carmichael : Near-Death Experiences and the Afterlife, 2014. – 170 p. 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.