PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION AND THE STATUS OF THE WOMAN IN SOCIETY OF THE XVIII CENTURY

Olha P. Vlasova, Nataliia P. Kostyuk

Abstract


The purpose. The objective of this paper is to illustrate how the biological basis of the “natural” male and female characteristics is subjected to doubt in the books of the women-writers - “feminists before feminism” despite the dictatorship of the specific gender norms of the philosophical concepts of that period. These very concepts of the classical philosophy determined ideology, psychology and reasoning of both sexes in the Enlightenment including both public and private spheres. The “picture” of the sociocultural realia of that period is analyzed with the help of the gender which is used here not only as a role or feature but as methodology. The scientific novelty lies in constructing a more complete polyphonical picture of the sociocultural life in the epoch of the Enlightenment in rejecting the “one-sex” interpretation of the philosophy and culture of that period in assuring that there were two subjects in the Enlightenment history and culture-representatives of both sexes. The analysis of philosophical texts and fiction allows to make a conclusion: early feminists were sure that the rational capabilities of men and women do not differ the sexual differences are irrelevant in the problems of intellectual and moral education.


Keywords


enlightenment; sexual differences; feminism; gender; essentualism; education; rationalism; private sphere; literature

References


Outram D. TheEnlightenment. New Approaches to European History. – Columbia Univ. Press, 2013. – 184p.

Condorcet, Prudhomme, Guyomar. Paroles d’hommes (1790-1793).Paris, Pol., 1989. 192 p.

Rousseau J.-J. Emile, or On Education/ Jean-Jacques Rousseau. – Ed. Ch. Kelly. – Dartmouth, 2009. – 812 p.

Moran M.C. Between the Savage and the Civil/ Michael Moran// Women, Gender and Enlightenment. – Ed. B. Saylor, S. Knott. – Palgrave, 2007.–792p.

Pearsall R. The Worm in the Bud/ Ronald Pearsall. – London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969. – 560 p.

Taylor B. Feminists versus Gallants: Manners and Morals in Enlightenment Britain/ Brian Taylor// Women, Gender and Enlightenment. – Ed. B. Saylor, S. Knott. – Palgrave, 2007. – 792 p.

Gatens M. “The Oppressed State of My Sex”: Wollstonecraft on Reason, Feeling and Equality// Feminist Interpretations and Political Theory. Pennsylvania State University: Polity Press, 1991 288 p.

Wollstonecraft M. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman/ Mary Wollstonecraft. – London: Penguin, 1975. –340 p.

Wollstonecraft M. Letters Written during a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway and Denmark/ Mary

Wollstonecraft//Anthology of British Women Writers. Ed. D. Spender, J. Todd. – London: Pandora, 1989. – P. 311 - 324.

Hays M. Appeal to the Men of Great Britain in Behalf of Women/ Mary Hays// Anthology of British Women Writers – Eds. D. Spender, J. Todd – London: Pandora, 1989. – 925 p.

O’Brien K. Women and Enlightenment in Eighteenth Century Britain. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009. – 792 p.


GOST Style Citations


1. Outram D. The Enlightenment. New Approaches to European History.–Columbia Univ. Press, 2013. – 184 p.

2. Кондорсе, Прюдо, Пітомар. Слова чоловіків. – Упор Е. Бадентер. – К.: Альтерпрес, 2006. – 400 с.

3. Rousseau J.-J. Emile, or On Education/ Jean-Jacques Rousseau. – Ed. Ch. Kelly. – Dartmouth, 2009. – 812 p.

4. Moran M.C. Between the Savage and the Civil/Michael Moran// Women, Gender and Enlightenment. – Ed. B. Saylor, S. Knott. – Palgrave, 2007.–792p.

5. Pearsall R. The Worm in the Bud/ Ronald Pearsall. – London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969. – 560 p.

6. Taylor B. Feminists versus Gallants: Manners and Morals in Enlightenment Britain/ Brian Taylor//Women, Gender and Enlightenment. – Ed. B. Saylor, S. Knott. – Palgrave, 2007. – 792 p.

7. Гейтенс М. «Притеснение моего пола»: Уолл-стоункрафт о разуме, чувстве и равенстве/Мойра Гейтенс// Феминистская критика и ревизия истории политической философии. – М.: РОССПЭН, 2005. – С. 159-181.

8. Wollstonecraft M. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman/ Mary Wollstonecraft. – London: Penguin, 1975. – 340 p.

9. Wollstonecraft M. Letters Written during a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway and Denmark/Mary Wollstonecraft// Anthology of British Women Writers. Ed. D. Spender, J. Todd. – London: Pandora, 1989. – P. 311-324.

10. Hays M. Appeal to the Men of Great Britain in Behalf of Women/ Mary Hays// Anthology of British Women Writers – Eds. D. Spender, J.Todd – London: Pandora, 1989. – 925 p.

11. O’Brien K. Women and Enlightenment in Eighteenth Century Britain. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009. – 792 p.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr2015/43675

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.