ANTHROPOCENTRIC INTENTION OF HESYCHAST AND SUFISTIC PRACTICES OF FREEDOM PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT

Yurii Y. Semchuk

Abstract


The Purpose is to analyse problems of individual freedom in mystical currents of Hesychasm and Sufism comprehensively in the territory of Ukraine. It deals with issues of Hesychasm and Sufism origin, mystical practices features and their overflowing borrowing on the way to Truth by God finding. Methodology. With a view to the reconstruction of a holistic world view of the desert in their deification of personal freedom, the author uses methodology of humanitarian analysis (analysis and synthesis, comparison, abstraction, generalization), and the phenomenological method – the study specifics of the mystical way of knowing reality and comparative method − the study and comparison of different types of mystical-religious movements in the synthesis of the history of philosophy, philosophy of religion, psychology, phenomenology and the history of religion. Scientific novelty. Watching the life of the monks Optina Pustyn can trace the genesis hesychast tradition from the time of Paisius Velichkovsky. The influence and the use of spiritual advisors fundamental hesychast texts "Philokalia" in secular name and in the empyreal world alike are researched. It is proved that in the spiritual practices of Hesychasm and Sufism Set the true path to God. The mystics’ efforts in aspiration of perception of the Truth were reconstructed, as in Christian practices of an unexpected irradiation of cognition Omnipresent and in the knowledge of Jehovah in Sufism through «gentle-hearted message» which is opened to receiving spiritual vision and the gift of God without volitional intentions of the observer. Conclusions. The author concludes that despite the existence of schools and practices, personal manifestation of union with God through the freedom of own will devoted in listening of spiritual life – own heart, is dominant in Hesychasm and Sufism mystical currents. The main secret of mystics was not a transfer of theoretical knowledge through the generations, but the apparition of truth through his own aspiration to knowledge, in the unbearable austerity initiation experiences obtained enlightenment, happiness deification, the anguish of love. This barrier was the form of sense that needs to be empathized but it is impossible to learn.


Keywords


Sufism; Hesychasm; Orthodoxy; Islam; freedom; synergy

References


Abu Khamid Mukhammad al-Gazali at-Tusi. «Kymiya-yi sa-dat» (Eliksir schast'ya»). Chast' 1: Unvany 1 – 4. Rukn – 1. – Perev. s pers. A. A. Khismatulina [Medieval philosophical thought], Sankt-Petersburg: Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie, 2002, 332 p.

As-Sulami. Tabakat as-sufiyya. 3-e izd [Spiritual practice Islamic mysticism (Sufism)], Kair: Matba'at almadani, 1986, 580 p.

Berdyaev N. A. Filosofiya svobody. Smysl tvorchestva [Philosophy of freedom], Moscow: Pravda, 1989, 607 p.

Grigor'ev A. P. Zolotoordynskie khany 60–70-kh gg. XIV v. Khronologiya pravleniy [Medieval History of Asia], Istoriografiya i istochnikovede nie stran Azii i Afriki. Leningrad: Leningradskiy Un-t, 1983, issue VII, pp. 9–112.

Zhukovets R. Za zavesami sveta [The esoteric Sufism], Moscow: Izdatel'stvo №16, 272 p.

Losskiy V.N. Ocherk misticheskogo bogosloviya Vostochnoy tserkvi [Dogmatics theology], Moscow: SEI, 1991, 288 p.

Konovalov K. V. Vliyanie isikhazma na antropologicheskie i gnoseologicheskie vozzreniya Maksima Greka (Mikhaila Trivolisa) [Anthropological views], Barnaul: Altayskiy universitet, 2014,163 p.

Medvedev I.P. Vizantiyskiy gumanіzm ХІV – XV vv.[Humanistic ideology of Byzantium], Moscow, Nauka, 1976, 256 p.

Monakh Simeon Afonskiy. Isikhazm dlya sovremennikov [Greek Hesychasm tradition], Afon: Pustyn' Novaya Fivaida Afonskogo Russkogo Panteleimonova monastirya, 2012, 105 p.

Nabiev R. A. Islam na evropeyskom Vostoke: entsiklopedicheskiy slovar [Glossary of religious studies], Kazan': Magarif, 2004, 383 p.

Palama G. Triady v zashchitu svyashchenno bezmolvstvuyushchikh [Byzantine theology ], Moscow: Kanon, 1995, 382 p.

Svjatitel' Grigorij Palama. Ob ishozhdenii Svjatogo Duha: Antilatinskie sochinenija [Byzantine theology], Moscow: Smirenie. 2013, 192 p.

Horuzhij S.S. K fenomenologii askezy [Christian Anthropology], Moscow: Omega, 2000, 352p.

Shimmel' Annemari. Mir islamskogo mistitsizma [Islamic mysticism], Per. s ang. N. I. Prigarinoy, A.S. Rappoport, Moscow: Aleteyya, Enigma, 1999, 416 p.

Bahri M.D.P. Prayers of a Christian Sufi. Calif ., Point Reyes, Golden Sufi Center, 2015. – 296 S.

Barrington-Ward S. The Jesus Prayer: A Way to Contemplation. Pauline Books & Media, 2011. – 144 S.

Bitkoff S. Sufism for Western Seekers: Path of the Spiritual Traveler in Everyday Life. Montreal, Abandoned Ladder, 2011. – 192 S.

Della D. V. Imagining Mount Athos: Visions of a Holy Place from Homer to World War II. University of Virginia Press, 2011. – 312 S.

Ernst C. W. Sufism: An Introduction to the Mystical Tradition of Islam. Boston, Shambhala, 2011. – 264 p.

Corbin H., Manheim R. Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn 'Arabi. N.Y., Princeton University,2008.–399 S.

Freke T. The Heart of Islam. London, Godsfield Press, 2015. – 96 S.

Hossein S. N . The Garden of Truth: The Vision and Promise of Sufism, Islam's Mystical Tradition. University of London. UK., 2012. – 256 S.

Johnson C. D. L. The Globalization of Hesychasm and the Jesus Prayer: Contesting Contemplation. N.Y., A&C Black, 2010. – 206 S.

Metropolitan Nahum of Strumica. Only one thing is needed. – Dhyanavana Publications, Monastery of the Entry of the Most Holy Theotokos Eleusa 2015. – 160 S.

Paert I. Spiritual Elders: Charisma and Tradition in Russian Orthodoxy.-Northern Illinois University Press, 2010–286 S.

Payne P.D. The Revival of Political Hesychasm in Contemporary Orthodox Thought: The Political Hesychasm of John Romanides and Christos Yannaras. London, Lexington Books, 2011. – 301 S.

Pittman M.S. Classical Spirituality in Contemporary America: The Confluence and Contribution of G.I. Gurdjieff and Sufism, 2012. – 256 S.

Sánchez-Escobar Á. On Ascesis and Hesychasm, and the Church Fathers. N.Y., CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014. – 252 S.

Shah I. The Sufis. N.Y., Garden City, Doubleday, 2014. – 404 S.

Toussulis Y. Sufism and the Way of Blame: Hidden Sources of a Sacred Psychology. N.Y., Quest Books/Theosophical Publishing House, 2011.–282S.


GOST Style Citations


1. Абу Хамид Мухаммад ал-Газали ат-Туси. «Кймийа-йи садат» (Эликсир счастья»). Часть 1: Унваны 1 – 4. Рукн – 1. – Перев. С перс. А. А. Хисматулина / Абу Хамид Мухаммад ал-Газали ат-Туси . – СПб.: «Петербурское Востоковедение», 2002. – LII + 332 с.

2. Ас-Сулами. Табакат ас-суфиййа. 3-е изд / Ас-Сулами. – Каир:. Матба'ат ал-мадани, 1986. –580 с.

3. Бердяев Н. А.Философия свободы. Смысл творчества / Н. А. Бердяев. – М. : Правда, 1989. – 607 с.

4. Григорьев А. П. Золотоордынские ханы 60–70-х гг. XIV в. Хронология правлений / А. П. Григорьев // Историография и источниковедение стран Азии и Африки. Л.: Изд. Ленинградского Ун-та, 1983. Вып. VII. С. 9–112.

5. Жуковец Р. За завесами света / Р. Жуковец. –М.: «Издательство №16». – 272с.

6. Лосский В.Н. Очерк мистического богословия Восточной церкви. Догматическое Богословие / В.Н. Лосский. – М.: СЭИ, 1991. – 288 с.

7. Коновалов К. В. Влияние исихазма на антропологические и гносеологические воззрения Максима Грека (Михаила Триволиса)/К.В.Коновалов.— Барнаул: Изд-воАлт. ун-та, 2014. —163 с.

8. Медведев И.П. Византийский гуманизм ХІV– XV вв. / И.П. Медведев. – M.: Изд-во «Наука», 1976. – 256 с.

9. Монах Симеон Афонский. Исихазм для современников/ С.Афонский. – Святая Гора Афон: Пустынь Новая Фиваида Афонского Русского Пантелеимонова монастиря, 2012. – 105 с.

10. Набиев Р. А. Ислам на европейском Востоке: энциклопедический словарь / Р. А. Набиев. – Казань: Магариф, 2004 – 383 с.

11. Палама Г. Триады в защиту священно-безмолвствующих / Г. Палама. – М.: Канон, 1995. – 382 с. 12. Святитель Григорий Палама. Об исхождении Святого Духа: Антилатинские сочинения / Григорий Палама. – М.: Изд-ство Смирение, 2013. – 192 с.

13. Хоружий С.С. К феноменологии аскезы /С. С. Хоружий. – М.: «Омега», 2000. – 352 с.

14. Шиммель Аннемари. Мир исламского мистицизма/ Аннемари Шиммель. – Пер. с анг. Н.И. Пригариной, А.С. Раппопорт .- М.: Алетейя, Энигма, 1999. – 416с.

15. Bahri M.D.P. Prayers of a Christian Sufi. Calif .,Point Reyes, Golden Sufi Center, 2015. 296 p.

16. Barrington-Ward S. The Jesus Prayer: A Way to Contemplation. Pauline Books & Media, 2011. 144р.

17. Bitkoff S. Sufism for Western Seekers: Path of the Spiritual Traveler in Everyday Life. Montreal, Abandoned Ladder, 2011. 192 p.

18. Della D. V. Imagining Mount Athos: Visions of a Holy Place from Homer to World War II. University of Virginia Press, 2011. 312 р.

19. Ernst C. W. Sufism: An Introduction to the Mystical Tradition of Islam. Boston, Shambhala, 2011. 264 p.

20. Corbin H., Manheim R. Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn 'Arabi. N.Y., Princeton University, 2008. 399 p.

21. Freke T. The Heart of Islam. London, Godsfield Press, 2015. 96 p.

22. Hossein S. N . The Garden of Truth: The Vision and Promise of Sufism, Islam's Mystical Tradition. University of London. UK., 2012. 256p.

23. Johnson C. D. L. The Globalization of Hesychasm and the Jesus Prayer: Contesting Contemplation. N.Y., A&C Black, 2010. – 206 р.

24. Metropolitan Nahum of Strumica. Only one thing is needed. – Dhyanavana Publications, Monastery of the Entry of the Most Holy Theotokos Eleusa 2015. 160 р.

25. Paert I. Spiritual Elders: Charisma and Tradition in Russian Orthodoxy.-Northern Illinois University Press, 2010 286р

26. Payne P.D. The Revival of Political Hesychasm in Contemporary Orthodox Thought: The Political Hesychasm of John Romanides and Christos Yannaras. London, Lexington Books, 2011. 301 p.

27. Pittman M.S. Classical Spirituality in Contemporary America: The Confluence and Contribution of G.I. Gurdjieff and Sufism, 2012. 256 р.

28. Sánchez-Escobar Á.On Ascesis and Hesychasm, and the Church Fathers. N.Y., CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014. 252 p. 29. Shah I. The Sufis. N.Y., Garden City, Doubleday, 2014. 404 p.

30. Toussulis Y. Sufism and the Way of Blame: Hidden Sources of a Sacred Psychology. N.Y., Quest Books/Theosophical Publishing House, 2011. 282 p.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr2015/43426

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.