PERCEIVING THE SACRED FEMININE: SOME THOUGHTS ON THE CYCLADIC FIGURINES AND JUNGIAN ARCHETYPES
Keywords:Cycladic figurines, C. G. Jung, collective unconscious, archetypes, Great Mother, Anima, Self
AbstractPurpose. Without claiming to explain the meaning and purpose of the Cycladic figurines of the canonical type (FAF) in the context of the culture that created them, the author attempts to investigate the phenomenon of these ancient images and their impact on contemporary humans through the lens of Carl Gustav Jung’s theory of the collective unconscious and the archetypes. Theoretical basis. The primary meanings and purposes of the Cycladic figurines are ambiguous and incomprehensible to us. We cannot understand them in the context of their original culture. But we are able to create our own meanings: unfinished images generate an opportunity to bypass our conscious mind and to contact the unconscious. The Cycladic figurines may resonate with female archetypes in the male and female psyche, as well as symbolize the ontological primacy of creative unity of opposites, the integrity of consciousness and the unconscious. Originality. The author outlined the possible unconscious meanings generated by the Cycladic figurines for human psyche. The Cycladic figurines actualize the archetypes of the collective unconscious, such as the Great Mother, the Anima, and the Self. These ancient images can be used for introspection, art therapy, active imagination, meditation, mindfulness. Conclusions. The results show that the Cycladic figurines have had a huge impact on the artists of the 20th century and continue to influence our contemporaries due to the emotional response they evoke in the unconscious, which conceals the primordial features of the ancient mind. Laconic ancient images provide a vast space of options for human imagination. In an attempt to interpret them, we are suddenly seized and carried away into unknown depths. Archetypal images are manifested in any form – from sublime and beautiful to terrible, but they create a single space full of numinous awe and beauty. Engaging with the archetypes and revealing their hidden messages, we establish a connection between consciousness and the unconscious, between the personal and collective unconscious to achieve a deep self-awareness and inner growth.
Bazaluk, O. (2019). The Transformation of a Cultural Ideal in the Theories of Education According to Plato’s Line. Studia Warmińskie, 56, 95-104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31648/sw.4598 (in English)
Berdyaev, N. (1993). Ekzistentsialnaya dialektika bozhestvennogo i chelovecheskogo. Moscow: Respublika. Retrieved from http://yakov.works/library/02_b/berdyaev/1944_041_7.html#%D0%A5 (in Russian)
Birtacha, K. (2018). Redefining the "Beautiful" in Cycladic Anthropomorphic Figurines. In M. Lagogianni-Georgakarakos (Ed.), The Countless Aspects of Beauty in Ancient Art (pp. 333-344). Athens: The Archaeological Receipts Fund. (in English)
Cassirer, E. (2020). The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms: Three Volume Set. Routledge. (in English)
Danylova, T. V. (2015). The Way to the Self: The Novel "Steppenwolf" Through the Lens of Jungian Process of Individuation. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 7, 28-35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr2015/43391 (in English)
Danylova, T., & Salata, G. (2018). The Ecological Imperative and Human Nature: A New Perspective on Ecological Education. Interdisciplinary Studies of Complex Systems, 12, 17-24. (in English)
Franz, M.-L. von. (1964). The process of individuation. In C. G. Jung (Ed.), Man and his Symbols (pp. 158-229). Anchor Press. (in English)
Gill, D. W. J., & Chippindale, C. (1993). Material and Intellectual Consequences of Esteem for Cycladic Figures. American Journal of Archaeology, 97(4), 601-659. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/506716 (in English)
Gonzales, E. (2018). Simply "Good to Look at": Cycladic Figurines and Women’s Role in Ritual. Bowdoin Journal of Art, IV, 1-20. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/36406426/Simply_Good_to_Look_at_Cycladic_Figurines_and_Womens_Role_in_Ritual (in English)
Goodison, L. (1989). Death, Women, and the Sun: Symbolism of Regeneration in Early Aegean Religion. London: University of London, Institute of Classical Studies. (in English)
Graves, R. (2013). White Goddess. FSG Adult. (in English)
Henderson, J. L. (1964). Ancient myths and modern man. In C. G. Jung (Ed.), Man and his Symbols (pp. 104-157). Anchor Press. (in English)
Hendrix, E. A. (2003). Painted Early Cycladic Figures: An Exploration of Context and Meaning. Hesperia, 72(4), 405-446. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3182012 (in English)
Jung, C. G. (1964). Approaching the Unconscious. In C. G. Jung (Ed.), Man and his Symbols (pp. 18-103). Anchor Press. (in English)
Jung, C. G. (1969). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (Vol. 9, Pt. 1). Princeton University Press. Retrieved from https://www.jungiananalysts.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/C.-G.-Jung-Collected-Works-Volume-9i_-The-Archetypes-of-the-Collective-Unconscious.pdf (in English)
Jung, C. G. (1979). Psikhologiya i poeticheskoe tvorchestvo. In Sudba iskusstva i kultury v zapadnoevropeyskoy mysli XX v. (pp. 179-210). Moscow: INION. (in Russian)
Jung, C. G. (2015). 1951-1961. In G. Adler & A. Jaffe (Eds.), Letters (Vol. 2). Routledge. (in English)
Khmil, V. V. (2019). Gender Project of the Future. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 15, 7-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i15.170199 (in English)
Khmil, V. V., & Korkh, O. M. (2014). Transcendental Aspects of Gender. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 5, 69-76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr2014/25045 (in English)
Kolesnykova, T., & Matveyeva, O. (2019). An Analysis of Digital Library Publishing Services in Ukrainian Universities. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 14(4), 52-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18438/eblip29510 (in English)
Lehrman, K. (1999). The Beautiful People. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/books/99/03/21/reviews/990321.21lehrmat.html (in English)
Lorenz, K. (2017). Agressiya, ili tak nazyvaemoe zlo. Moscow: AST. (in Russian)
Lorenz, K. (2019). Koltso tsarya Solomona. Moscow: AST. (in Russian)
Losev, A. F. (2012). Znak. Simvol. Mif. Moscow: "Kniga po Trebovaniyu". (in Russian)
Marthari, M., Renfrew, C., & Boyd, M. J. (Eds.). (2017). Early Cycladic Sculpture in Context. Oxbow Books.
Neumann, E. (2015). The Great Mother: An Analysis of the Archetype. Princeton University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400866106 (in English)
Phillips, I. (2019). Demystifying Cycladic Figurines. Daily Art Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.dailyartmagazine.com/demystifying-cycladic-figurines/ (in English)
Renfrew, C. (1969). The Development and Chronology of the Early Cycladic Figurines. American Journal of Archaeology, 73(1), 1-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/503370 (in English)
Renfrew, C. (2010). Cyclades. In E. H. Cline (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (pp. 83-98). Oxford: Oxford University Press. (in English)
Renfrew, C., Philaniotou, O., Brodie, N., Gavalas, G., & Boyd, M. (Eds.). (2018). The Marble Finds from Kavos and the Archaeology of Ritual (The sanctuary on Keros and the origins of Aegean ritual practice). McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. (in English)
Storozhuk, S. V., & Hoyan, I. M. (2017). Gender Equality as a Modern Phenomenon. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 11, 71-83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i11.105481 (in English)
Thimme, J. (Ed.). (1977). Art and Culture of the Cyclades: Handbook of an Ancient Civilization. Karlsruhe: C. F. Muller.
How to Cite
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).