DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i17.206660

INCOMPATIBILITY OR CONVERGENCE: HUMAN LIFE AS CAPITAL

N. M. Boichenko, Z. V. Shevchenko

Abstract


The purpose of the study is to identify a common theoretical basis for the study of human life as capital and unconditional higher value. Theoretical basis is based on the value-laden and revised structural constructivism, provided by the French philosopher and sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, critical analysis of the concepts of capital as the embodiment of social expectations, the biological concept of the value of human life, as well as the concepts of its sanctity. Originality. It is proved that one should not consider the value of human life as capital only but instead takes into account its different value interpretations, especially when forming the social identity of a person. Moreover, in each of the value systems, the value of human life can be recognized as unconditional, which does not prevent the coexistence of such different value interpretations within the framework of one social identity, which then inevitably becomes a multiple social identity. Conclusions. Human life cannot be considered as a result of integrating economic expectations into the concept of "advertising" capital: first, expectations may well be inadequate; second, expectations by themselves are not directly related to capital; third, expectations do not necessarily lead to development; fourth, one should clearly distinguish between the spontaneous "expectations" and the values that express people’s strong motivation as members of social communities. The multiplicity of possible cultural conditions that affirm the unconditional value of life indicates that this unconditionality is always relevant rather than absolute. The multiple social identities could be used to add value to the protection of human life, the affirmation of multiple social identities is a means of affirming the unconditional value of human life – it is unconditional in several alternative ways.

Keywords


human life; person; capital; unconditional higher value; sanctity of life; multiple social identity

Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


Bilous, T. (2018). John Maynard Keynes as Economist and Philosopher. Filosofska Dumka, 2, 71-88. (in Ukrainian)

Boichenko, M. I., Shevchenko, Z. V., & Pituley, V. V. (2019). The role of biological and social factors in determining gender identity. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 15, 11-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i15.169468 (in English)

Bourdieu, P. (1987). Choses dites. Minuit. (in French)

Danylova, T. V. (2017). Searching for the True Self: The Way of Nondual Wisdom. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 12, 7-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i12.119069 (in English)

Helliwell, J., Layard, R., & Sachs, J. (2019). World Happiness Report 2019. New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network. Retrieved from https://worldhappiness.report/ed/2019/ (in English)

Jankurová, A., & Děd, M. (2015). Ethical values of students. 2nd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2015, 85-92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5593/SGEMSOCIAL2015/B21/S4.012

Jones, D. A. (2016). An Unholy Mess: Why 'The Sanctity of Life Principle' Should Be Jettisoned. The New Bioethics: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body, 22(3), 185-201. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/20502877.2016.1238649 (in English)

Keynes, J. M. (1971-1989). The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes (Vols. 1-30). London: Macmillan. (in English)

Khmil, V. V., & Popovych, I. S. (2019). Philosophical and psychological dimensions of social expectations of personality. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 16, 55-65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i16.187540 (in English)

Lit, G. (2019). The elusive question of economic development, health and happiness: The unique experience of Singapore. Happiness and civilizational development: Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference, November 14-15, 2019, Lviv, 31-35. (in English)

McMahan, J. (2002). The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life. New York: Oxford University Press. (in English)

Moulin, A.-M. (2016). Le corps face à la médecine. Y. Romanova, Trans. from French. In A. Corbin, J.-J. Courtine & G. Vigarello (Eds.), Histoire du corps: Les mutations du regard. Le XXe siècle (Vol. 3, рр. 11-62). Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. (in Russian)

Rickert, H. (1998). Die Philosophie des Lebens. Y. S. Berlovich, & I. Y. Kolubovskiy, Trans. from German. In Die Philosophie des Lebens (pp. 269-443). Kyiv: Nika-Tsentr, Vist-S. (in Russian)

Schaeffer, J.-M. (2007). La fin de l’exception humaine. Paris: Gallimard.

Singer, P. (2018). The challenge of brain death for the sanctity of life ethic. Ethics & Bioethics (in Central Europe), 8(3-4), 153-165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/ebce-2018-0012

Spivak, L., & Kovalenko, O. (2018). Language of Communication as an Important Condition for the Development of National Identity During Ukrainian Students. Psycholinguistics, 24(1), 304-319. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31470/2309-1797-2018-24-1-304-319 (in English)


GOST Style Citations


Білоус Т. Джон Мейнард Кейнс – економіст і філософ. Філософська думка. 2018. № 2. С. 71–88.

Boichenko M. I., Shevchenko Z. V., Pituley V. V. The role of biological and social factors in determining gender identity. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research. 2019. № 15. P. 11–21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i15.169468

Bourdieu P. Choses dites. Minuit, 1987. 228 p.

Danylova T. V. Searching for the True Self: The Way of Nondual Wisdom. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research. 2017. № 12. P. 7–15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i12.119069

Helliwell J., Layard R., Sachs J. World Happiness Report 2019. New York : Sustainable Development Solutions Network. URL: https://worldhappiness.report/ed/2019/ (date of access: 23.02.2020).

Jankurová A., Děd M. Ethical values of students. 2nd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts SGEM 2015. 2015. P. 85–92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5593/SGEMSOCIAL2015/B21/S4.012

Jones D. A. An Unholy Mess: Why 'The Sanctity of Life Principle' Should Be Jettisoned. The New Bioethics: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body. 2016. Vol. 22. Iss. 3. P. 185–201. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/20502877.2016.1238649

Keynes J. M. The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes : in 30 vols. London : Macmillan, 1971–1989.

Khmil V. V., Popovych I. S. Philosophical and psychological dimensions of social expectations of personality. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research. 2019. № 16. P. 55–65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i16.187540

Lit G. The elusive question of economic development, health and happiness: the unique experience of Singapore. Щастя та цивілізаційний розвиток. Матеріали міжнар. наук.-практ. конф. (Львів, 14-15 лист. 2019 р.). Львів, 2019. С. 31–35.

McMahan J. The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life. New York : Oxford University Press, 2002. 556 p.

Мулен А.-М. Тело с точки зрения медицины / пер. с фр. Ю. Романовой. История тела : в 3 т. / под. ред. А. Корбена, Ж.-Ж. Куртина, Ж. Вигарелло. Т. 3: Перемена взгляда: ХХ век. Москва : Новое литературное обозрение, 2016. С. 11–62.

Риккерт Г. Философия жизни / пер. с нем. Е. С. Берловича, И. Я. Колубовского. Философия жизни. Киев : Ника-Центр, Вист-С, 1998. С. 269–443.

Schaeffer J.-M. La fin de l’exception humaine. Paris : Gallimard, 2007. 446 p.

Singer P. The challenge of brain death for the sanctity of life ethic. Ethics & Bioethics (in Central Europe). 2018. Vol. 8. Iss. 3–4. P. 153–165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/ebce-2018-0012

Spivak L., Kovalenko, O. Language of Communication as an Important Condition for the Development of National Identity During Ukrainian Students. Psycholinguistics. 2018. Vol. 24. Iss. 1. P. 304–319. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31470/2309-1797-2018-24-1-304-319




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.