DOCTRINE OF MAN IN DESCARTES AND PASCAL
Keywords:Descartes, Pascal, man, anthropology, religion, rationality, scientific revolution, ethics
AbstractPurpose. The paper aims at substantiating the meaningful relationship between Descartes’ and Pascal’s positions as two variants in responding to the demand of the era in the development of anthropology. The realization of this purpose involves defining the spiritual climate of the era and addressing to the texts of two great French thinkers of the 17th century to demonstrate common moments in interpreting the phenomenon of a man. Theoretical basis. The methodological basis in the research is the conceptual propositions of the representatives of phenomenology and hermeneutics. Originality. The existence of the doctrine of human nature by Descartes is argued and the manifestations of common moments with Pascal’s doctrine are outlined. The latter include the context of the Copernican unfinished Revolution, the emphasis on restrictions in the methodology of the natural sciences, the intense search for description language beyond the rational components of human nature, the high opinion in the Christian understanding of man, critique of atheism. Conclusions. The paper substantiates the meaningful relationship in the doctrine of man from both French thinkers, which manifests itself in the vision of the initial situation as a person’s choice of their own foundations in the course of conceptualization the scientific revolution, understanding of Christianity as a basic paradigm of thinking, priority of the anthropological interest over natural-science one, the dominant role of the ethical philosophizing motive.
Ariew, R. (2007). Descartes and Pascal. Perspectives on Science,15(4), 397-409. doi: https://doi.org/10.1162/posc.2007.15.4.397 (in English)
Descartes, R. (1996). Oeuvres completes: In 11 Vol. Paris: C. Adam et P. Tannery. (in French)
Franchetti, C. (2012). The Giants of Doubt: A Comparison between Epistemological Aspects of Descartes and Pascal. Open Journal of Philosophy, 2(3), 183-188. doi: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpp.2012.23028 (in English)
Hammond, N. (Ed.). (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Pascal. Cambridge University Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/ccol052180924x (in English)
Hibbs, T. (2005). Habits of the Heart: Pascal and the Ethics of Thought. International Philosophical Quarterly, 45(2), 203-220. doi: https://doi.org/10.5840/ipq20054522 (in English)
Khoma, O. (2012). Dekart i Paskal: Shliakh do filosofii na tli Grand Siècle. Philosophical Thought, 6, 19-38. (in Ukrainian)
Malivskyi, A. M. (2017). Anthropological project as a basis of Cartesian Ethics. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 11, 117-126. doi: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i11.105495 (in Ukrainian)
Malivskyi, A. M. (2018). Descartes about Anthropological Grounds of Philosophy in the "Early Writings". Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 14, 132-141. doi: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i14.150769 (in English)
Ortega-y-Gasset, J. (1991). Chto takoe filosofiya? Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian)
Pascal, B. (2009). Dumky. Kyiv: Dukh i Litera. (in Ukrainian)
Wienand, I. (2009). Discourses and Happiness. Ethical Perspectives, 16(1), 103-128. doi: https://doi.org/10.2143/ep.16.1.2036280 (in English)
How to Cite
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).