DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i16.188893

DOCTRINE OF MAN IN DESCARTES AND PASCAL

A. M. Malivskyi

Abstract


Purpose. The paper aims at substantiating the meaningful relationship between Descartes’ and Pascal’s positions as two variants in responding to the demand of the era in the development of anthropology. The realization of this purpose involves defining the spiritual climate of the era and addressing to the texts of two great French thinkers of the 17th century to demonstrate common moments in interpreting the phenomenon of a man. Theoretical basis. The methodological basis in the research is the conceptual propositions of the representatives of phenomenology and hermeneutics. Originality. The existence of the doctrine of human nature by Descartes is argued and the manifestations of common moments with Pascal’s doctrine are outlined. The latter include the context of the Copernican unfinished Revolution, the emphasis on restrictions in the methodology of the natural sciences, the intense search for description language beyond the rational components of human nature, the high opinion in the Christian understanding of man, critique of atheism. Conclusions. The paper substantiates the meaningful relationship in the doctrine of man from both French thinkers, which manifests itself in the vision of the initial situation as a person’s choice of their own foundations in the course of conceptualization the scientific revolution, understanding of Christianity as a basic paradigm of thinking, priority of the anthropological interest over natural-science one, the dominant role of the ethical philosophizing motive.

Keywords


Descartes; Pascal; man; anthropology; religion; rationality; scientific revolution; ethics

Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


Ariew, R. (2007). Descartes and Pascal. Perspectives on Science,15(4), 397-409. doi: https://doi.org/10.1162/posc.2007.15.4.397 (in English)

Descartes, R. (1996). Oeuvres completes: In 11 Vol. Paris: C. Adam et P. Tannery. (in French)

Franchetti, C. (2012). The Giants of Doubt: A Comparison between Epistemological Aspects of Descartes and Pascal. Open Journal of Philosophy, 2(3), 183-188. doi: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpp.2012.23028 (in English)

Hammond, N. (Ed.). (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Pascal. Cambridge University Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/ccol052180924x (in English)

Hibbs, T. (2005). Habits of the Heart: Pascal and the Ethics of Thought. International Philosophical Quarterly, 45(2), 203-220. doi: https://doi.org/10.5840/ipq20054522 (in English)

Khoma, O. (2012). Dekart i Paskal: Shliakh do filosofii na tli Grand Siècle. Philosophical Thought, 6, 19-38. (in Ukrainian)

Malivskyi, A. M. (2017). Anthropological project as a basis of Cartesian Ethics. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 11, 117-126. doi: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i11.105495 (in Ukrainian)

Malivskyi, A. M. (2018). Descartes about Anthropological Grounds of Philosophy in the "Early Writings". Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 14, 132-141. doi: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i14.150769 (in English)

Ortega-y-Gasset, J. (1991). Chto takoe filosofiya? Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian)

Pascal, B. (2009). Dumky. Kyiv: Dukh i Litera. (in Ukrainian)

Wienand, I. (2009). Discourses and Happiness. Ethical Perspectives, 16(1), 103-128. doi: https://doi.org/10.2143/ep.16.1.2036280 (in English)


GOST Style Citations


Ariew, R. Descartes and Pascal / R. Ariew // Perspectives on Science. – 2007. – Vol. 15, Iss. 4. – P. 397–409. doi: https://doi.org/10.1162/posc.2007.15.4.397

Descartes, R. Oeuvres Complètes : In 11 Vol. / R. Descartes. – Paris : C. Adam et P. Tannery, 1996. – 499 p.

Franchetti, C. The Giants of Doubt: A Comparison between Epistemological Aspects of Descartes and Pascal / C. Franchetti // Open Journal of Philosophy. – 2012. – Vol. 2, Iss. 3. – P. 183–188. doi: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpp.2012.23028

The Cambridge Companion to Pascal / ed. N. Hammond. – Cambridge University Press, 2003. – 304 p. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/ccol052180924x

Hibbs, T. Habits of the Heart: Pascal and the Ethics of Thought / T. Hibbs // International philosophical quarterly. – 2005. – Vol. 45, Iss. 2. – P. 203–220. doi: https://doi.org/10.5840/ipq20054522

Хома, О. Декарт і Паскаль: шлях до філософії на тлі "Grand Siècle" / О. Хома // Філософська думка. – 2012. – № 6. – C. 19–38.

Малівський, А. М. Антропологічний проект як підґрунтя картезіанської етики / А. М. Малівський // Антропологічні виміри філософських досліджень. – 2017. – Вип. 11. – С. 117–126. doi: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i11.105495

Malivskyi, A. M. Descartes about Anthropological Grounds of Philosophy in the "Early Writings" / A. M. Malivskyi // Антропологічні виміри філософських досліджень. – 2018. – Вип. 14. – С. 132–141.  doi: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i14.150769

Ортега-и-Гассет, Х. Что такое философия? / Х. Ортега-и-Гассет. – Москва : Наука, 1991. – 408 c.

Паскаль, Б. Думки / Б. Паскаль. – Київ : Дух і Літера, 2009. – 704 с.

Wienand, I. Discourses and Happiness / I. Wienand // Ethical Perspectives. – 2009. – Vol. 16, Iss. 1. – P. 103–128. doi: https://doi.org/10.2143/ep.16.1.2036280




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.