DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i16.188397

GODS OF TRANSHUMANISM

A. V. Halapsis

Abstract


Purpose of the article is to identify the religious factor in the teaching of transhumanism, to determine its role in the ideology of this flow of thought and to identify the possible limits of technology interference in human nature. Theoretical basis. The methodological basis of the article is the idea of transhumanism. Originality. In the foreseeable future, robots will be able to pass the Turing test, become "electronic personalities" and gain political rights, although the question of the possibility of machine consciousness and self-awareness remains open. In the face of robots, people create their assistants, evolutionary competition with which they will almost certainly lose with the initial data. For successful competition with robots, people will have to change, ceasing to be people in the classical sense. Changing the nature of man will require the emergence of a new – posthuman – anthropology. Conclusions. Against the background of scientific discoveries, technical breakthroughs and everyday improvements of the last decades, an anthropological revolution has taken shape, which made it possible to set the task of creating inhumanly intelligent creatures, as well as changing human nature, up to discussing options for artificial immortality. The history of man ends and the history of the posthuman begins. We can no longer turn off this path, however, in our power to preserve our human qualities in the posthuman future. The theme of the soul again reminded of itself, but from a different perspective – as the theme of consciousness and self-awareness. It became again relevant in connection with the development of computer and cloud technologies, artificial intelligence technologies, etc. If a machine ever becomes a "man", then can a man become a "machine"? However, even if such a hypothetical probability would turn into reality, we cannot talk about any form of individual immortality or about the continuation of existence in a different physical form. A digital copy of the soul will still remain a copy, and I see no fundamental possibility of isolating a substrate-independent mind from the human body. Immortality itself is necessary not so much for stopping someone’s fears or encouraging someone’s hopes, but for the final solution of a religious issue. However, the gods hold the keys to heaven hard and are unlikely to admit our modified descendants there.

Keywords


transhumanism; posthuman; substrate-independent mind; immortalism; loading of consciousness; cyborg; posthuman anthropology; silicone race; consciousness

Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


Abraham, W. C., & Robins, A. (2005). Memory retention – the synaptic stability versus plasticity dilemma. Trends in Neurosciences, 28(2), 73-78. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2004.12.003 (in English)

Bainbridge, W. S. (2004). Progress Toward Cyberimmortality. In S. Sethe (Ed.), The Scientific Conquest of Death: Essay on Infinite Lifespans (pp. 107-122). Buenos Aires: Libros en Red. (in English)

Bamford, S. (2012). A Framework for Approaches to Transfer of a Mind’s Substrate. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 04(01), 23-34. doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/s1793843012400021 (in English)

Canavero, S. (2013). HEAVEN: The head anastomosis venture Project outline for the first human head transplantation with spinal linkage (GEMINI). Surgical Neurology International, 4(2), 335-342. doi: https://doi.org/10.4103/2152-7806.113444 (in English)

Chalmers, D. J. (1995). Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 2(3), 200-219. (in English)

Chalmers, D. (2017). The Hard Problem of Consciousness. In S. Schneider & M. Velmans (Eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness (2nd ed.). (pp. 32-42). Wiley-Blackwell. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119132363.ch3 (in English)

Clark, A. (2003). Natural-Born Cyborgs: Minds, Technologies, and the Future of Human Intelligence. New York: Oxford University Press. (in English)

Elon Musk live at Code Conference. (2016). Voxmedia. Retrieved from http://www.recode.net/2016/6/2/11835550/watch-elon-musk-code-conference (in English)

Fisher, M. P. A. (2015). Quantum cognition: The possibility of processing with nuclear spins in the brain. Annals of Physics, 362, 593-602. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aop.2015.08.020 (in English)

FM-2030. (1989). Are You a Transhuman?: Monitoring and Stimulating Your Personal Rate of Growth in a Rapidly Changing World. Grand Central Pub. (in English)

FM-2030. (2010). Countdown to Immortality. Amagansett: The Amagansett Press. (in English)

Fukuyama, F. (2002). Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. (in English)

Halapsis, A. V. (2016). Tsifrovye tekhnologii i perekovka zheleznykh lyudey. ScienceRise, 7(1), 55-61. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/2313-8416.2016.69141 (in English)

Harari, Y. N. (2016). Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind. Moscow: Sindbad. (in English)

Huxley, J. (1957). New Bottles for New Wine. London: Chatto & Windus. (in English)

King, R. D. (2011). Rise of the Robo Scientists. Scientific American, 304(1), 72-77. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0111-72 (in English)

Koene, R. A. (2013). Uploading to Substrate-Independent Minds. In M. More & N. Vita-More (Eds.), The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future (pp. 146-156). Wiley-Blackwell. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118555927.ch14 (in English)

Kouider, S. (2009). Neurobiological Theories of Consciousness. In W. P. Banks (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Consciousness (pp. 87-100). Academic Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-012373873-8.00055-4 (in English)

Kurzweil, R. (2004). Human Body Version 2.0. In S. Sethe (Ed.), The Scientific Conquest of Death: Essay on Infinite Lifespans (pp. 93-106). Buenos Aires: Libros en Red. (in English)

Levine, J. (1983). Materialism and Qualia: The Explanatory Gap. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 64(4), 354-361. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0114.1983.tb00207.x (in English)

Licklider, J. C. R. (1960). Man-Computer Symbiosis. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, HFE-1(1), 4-11. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/thfe2.1960.4503259 (in English)

Magalhães, J. P. d. (2004). The Dream of Elixir Vitae. In S. Sethe (Ed.), The Scientific Conquest of Death: Essay on Infinite Lifespans (pp. 47-62). Buenos Aires: Libros en Red. (in English)

More, M., & Vita-More, N. (Eds.). (2013). The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future. Wiley-Blackwell. (in English)

Nagel, T. (1974). What Is It Like to Be a Bat? The Philosophical Review, 83(4), 435-450. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/2183914 (in English)

Palese, E. (2012). Robots and cyborgs: to be or to have a body? Poiesis & Praxis, 8(4), 191-196. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10202-012-0107-4 (in English)

Penrose, R. (2002). The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (in English)

Prodhan, G. (2016). Europe’s robots to become "electronic persons" under draft plan. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-robotics-lawmaking-idUSKCN0Z72AY (in English)

Rose, M. R. (2004). Biological Immortality. In S. Sethe (Ed.), The Scientific Conquest of Death: Essay on Infinite Lifespans (pp. 17-28). Buenos Aires: Libros en Red. (in English)

Rose, M. R. (2013). Immortalist Fictions and Strategies. In M. More & N. Vita-More (Eds.), The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future (pp. 196-204). Wiley-Blackwell. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118555927.ch19 (in English)

Rothblatt, M. (2013). Mind is Deeper Than Matter: Transgenderism, Transhumanism, and the Freedom of Form. In M. More & N. Vita-More (Eds.), The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future (pp. 317-326). Wiley-Blackwell. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118555927.ch31 (in English)

Schneider, S., & Velmans, M. (2007). Introduction. In S. Schneider & M. Velmans (Eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness (pp. 1-6). Wiley-Blackwell. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470751466.ch1 (in English)

Sotala, K., & Valpola, H. (2012). Coalescing Minds: Brain Uploading-Related Group Mind Scenarios. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 04(01), 293-312. doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/s1793843012400173 (in English)

Tononi, G., & Koch, C. (2015). Consciousness: here, there and everywhere? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 370(1668). doi: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0167 (in English)

Tononi, G., Boly, M., Massimini, M., & Koch, C. (2016). Integrated information theory: from consciousness to its physical substrate. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 17(7), 450-461. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2016.44 (in English)

Treder, M. (2004). Emancipation from Death. In S. Sethe (Ed.), The Scientific Conquest of Death: Essay on Infinite Lifespans (pp. 187-196). Buenos Aires: Libros en Red. (in English)


GOST Style Citations


Abraham, W. C. Memory retention – the synaptic stability versus plasticity dilemma / W. C. Abraham, A. Robins // Trends in Neurosciences. – 2005. – Vol. 28, Iss. 2. – P. 73–78. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2004.12.003

Bainbridge, W. S. Progress Toward Cyberimmortality / W. S. Bainbridge // The Scientific Conquest of Death: Essay on Infinite Lifespans / ed. S. Sethe. – Buenos Aires, 2004. – Р. 107–122.

Bamford, S. A Framework for Approaches to Transfer of a Mind’s Substrate / S. Bamford // International Journal of Machine Consciousness. – 2012. – Vol. 04, Iss. 01. – P. 23–34. doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/s1793843012400021

Canavero, S. HEAVEN: The head anastomosis venture Project outline for the first human head transplantation with spinal linkage (GEMINI) / S. Canavero // Surgical Neurology International. – 2013. – Vol. 4, Iss. 2. – P. 335–342. doi: https://doi.org/10.4103/2152-7806.113444

Chalmers, D. J. Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness / D. J. Chalmers // Journal of Consciousness Studies. – 1995. – Vol. 2, Iss. 3. – Р. 200–219.

Chalmers, D. J. The Hard Problem of Consciousness / D. J. Chalmers // The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness / eds. S. Schneider, M. Velmans. – 2nd ed. – 2017. – Р. 32–42. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119132363.ch3

Clark, A. Natural-Born Cyborgs: Minds, Technologies, and the Future of Human Intelligence / A. Clark. – New York : Oxford University Press, 2003. – 229 p.

Elon Musk live at Code Conference [Virtual Resource] // Voxmedia. – Access Mode: http://www.recode.net/2016/6/2/11835550/watch-elon-musk-code-conference. – Title from Screen. – Date of Access: 25 November 2019.

Fisher, M. P. A. Quantum Cognition: The possibility of processing with nuclear spins in the brain / M. P. A. Fisher // Annals of Physics. – 2015. – Vol. 362. – P. 593–602. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aop.2015.08.020

FM-2030. Are You a Transhuman?: Monitoring and Stimulating Your Personal Rate of Growth in a Rapidly Changing World / FM-2030. – Grand Central Pub, 1989. – 227 p.

FM-2030. Countdown to Immortality / FM-2030. – Amagansett : The Amagansett Press, 2010. – 163 p.

Fukuyama, F. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution / F. Fukuyama. – New York : Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002. – 256 p.

Халапсис, А. В. Цифровые технологии и перековка железных людей / А. В. Халапсис // ScienceRise. – 2016. – № 7 (1). – С. 55–61. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/2313-8416.2016.69141

Харари, Ю. Н. Sapiens. Краткая история человечества / Ю. Н. Харари. – Москва : Синдбад, 2016. – 520 с.

Huxley, J. New Bottles for New Wine / J. Huxley. – London : Chatto & Windus, 1957. – 320 p.

King, R. D. Rise of the Robo Scientists / R. D. King // Scientific American. – 2011. – Vol. 304, Iss. 1. – P. 72–77. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0111-72

Koene, R. A. Uploading to Substrate-Independent Minds / R. A. Koene // The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future / eds. M. More, N. Vita-More. – 2013. – P. 146–156. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118555927.ch14

Kouider, S. Neurobiological Theories of Consciousness / S. Kouider // Encyclopedia of Consciousness / ed. W. P. Banks. – 2009. – P. 87–100. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-012373873-8.00055-4

Kurzweil, R. Human Body Version 2.0 / R. Kurzweil // The Scientific Conquest of Death: Essay on Infinite Lifespans / ed. S. Sethe. – Buenos Aires, 2004. – Р. 93–106.

Levine, J. Materialism and Qualia: The Explanatory Gap / J. Levine // Pacific Philosophical Quarterly. – 1983. – Vol. 64, Iss. 4. – P. 354–361. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0114.1983.tb00207.x

Licklider, J. C. R. Man-Computer Symbiosis / J. C. R. Licklider // IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics. – 1960. – Vol. HFE-1, Iss. 1. – P. 4–11. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/thfe2.1960.4503259

de Magalhães, J. P. The Dream of Elixir Vitae / J. P. de Magalhães // The Scientific Conquest of Death: Essay on Infinite Lifespans / ed. S. Sethe. – Buenos Aires, 2004. – P. 47–62.

The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future / eds. M. More, N. Vita-More. – Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. – 467 p.

Nagel, T. What Is It Like to Be a Bat? / T. Nagel // The Philosophical Review. – 1974. – Vol. 83, Iss. 4. – P. 435–450. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/2183914

Palese, E. Robots and Cyborgs: To Be or To Have a Body? / E. Palese // Poiesis & Praxis. – 2012. – Vol. 8, Iss. 4. – P. 191–196. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10202-012-0107-4

Penrose, R. The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics / R. Penrose. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2002. – 640 p.

Prodhan, G. Europe’s robots to become "electronic persons" under draft plan [Electronic resource] / G. Prodhan. – Access Mode: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-robotics-lawmaking-idUSKCN0Z72AY. – Title from Screen. – Date of Access: 25 November 2019.

Rose, M. R. Biological Immortality / M. R. Rose // The Scientific Conquest of Death: Essay on Infinite Lifespans / ed. S. Sethe. – Buenos Aires, 2004. – P. 17–28.

Rose, M. R. Immortalist Fictions and Strategies / M. R. Rose // The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future / eds. M. More, N. Vita-More. – 2013. – P. 196–204. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118555927.ch19

Rothblatt, M. Mind is Deeper Than Matter: Transgenderism, Transhumanism, and the Freedom of Form / M. Rothblatt // The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future / eds. M. More, N. Vita-More. – 2013. – P. 317–326. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118555927.ch31

Schneider, S. Introduction / S. Schneider, M. Velmans // The Blackwell companion to consciousness / eds. S. Schneider, M. Velmans. – 2007. – P. 1–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470751466.ch1

Sotala, K. Coalescing Minds: Brain Uploading-Related Group Mind Scenarios / K. Sotala, H. Valpola // International Journal of Machine Consciousness. – 2012. – Vol. 04, Iss. 01. – P. 293–312. doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/s1793843012400173

Tononi, G. Consciousness: Here, There and Everywhere? / G. Tononi, C. Koch // Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. – 2015. – Vol. 370, Iss. 1668. – 18 p. doi: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0167

Tononi, G. Integrated Information Theory: From Consciousness to its Physical Substrate / G. Tononi, M. Boly, M. Massimini, C. Koch // Nature Reviews Neuroscience. – 2016. – Vol. 17, Iss. 7. – P. 450–461. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2016.44

Treder, M. Emancipation from Death / M. Treder // The Scientific Conquest of Death: Essay on Infinite Lifespans / ed. S. Sethe. – Buenos Aires, 2004. – P. 187–196.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.