ISSN 2227-7242 (Print), ISSN 2304-9685 (Online)
Антропологічні виміри філософських досліджень, 2019, Вип. 15
Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 2019, NO 15
THE MAN IN TECHNOSPHERE
THE MAN IN TECHNOSPHERE
UDC 316.423.6 : 130.2
T. V. DANYLOVA1*, L. A. KATS2*
University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
(Kyiv, Ukraine), e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org,
2*University of Haifa (Haifa, Israel), e-mail email@example.com,
"ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL, BUT SOME
ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS":
THE NEGTIVE IMPACT OF GENDER
INEQUALITY ON THE GLOBAL ECONOMY
AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Purpose. The purpose of the study is to define the negative impact of gender inequality on the global economy and public health. Theoretical basis. Unequal treatment of individuals based on gender discrimination has led to negative consequences in various areas of society. Gender inequality is very costly for the world due to the lack of representation of women in the labor market, gender income inequality situation, glass ceiling effect that have the negative impact on the world economy. Outdated gender roles, which are inconsistent with the new reality and the idea of human progress, have a significant impact on life expectancy, health, mortality and disease, access to health care and medical care. Originality. The vector of the development of the human society changes its direction, which leads to a renewal of an individual status-role framework, the creation of the new systems of values, theories and ideologies that require a new field of opportunities and free human self-identification and gender-identification. Conclusions. The results show that gender inequality has a negative impact on economic growth and development, as well as on physical and mental health. Strictly fixed gender roles limit free human development. Everyone should have the right to determine her/his gender, her/his interests and behavior patterns, while having the right to personal respect and respect for their honor, convictions, and gender practices.
Keywords: gender; gender inequality; human rights; economic development; physical and mental health; global society
Achieving gender equality and overcoming enduring cultural discriminatory stereotypes is one of the most acute problems of our time and a part of the development strategy in many countries around the world. Its awareness and elimination of barriers to equal relationship between men and women meet the goals of humanistic society. The continuing struggle for gender equality has led to certain changes in the public consciousness; however, genuine equality has not yet been achieved. Although many of the restrictions that had existed before were abolished, there are no real guarantees of equal rights on the basis of gender. Civil liberties will remain abstract concepts unless both men and women take steps towards realizing their potential, their own life projects.
Gender inequality is an international problem. In order to understand gender, it is necessary to go beyond the frame of accepted gender norms and consider gender roles and stereotypes as a broad set of practices that reflect the gender nature of power inextricably linked to the economic, political, social, and cultural spheres of society. As a result of reinforcement of the certain gender stereotypes in the socio-cultural practice, gender inequality affects all social institutions of society.
Gender inequality is a special case of wider inequality of individuals. Although the very concept of equality is rather controversial (Dworkin, 2000), it touches on the important moral and ethical issues and reminds us of our common human nature (despite the apparent differences). Equality is inextricably linked with human rights. Human rights are not protected until the rights of all are protected. Nowadays, there is a glaring contradiction between the new needs of individuals and the lack of conditions for their satisfaction. Gender asymmetry is not a private matter, but one of the most urgent problems of society, which can only be addressed at the state and global society level.
Many researchers have focused their attention on gender inequality. B. Friedan in her book "The Feminine Mystique" (2013) debunked the myth of male dominance and female natural subordination. The main ideas for understanding the phenomenon of gender inequality through the lens of suppression of the feminine across cultures and societies were developed by S. de Beauvoir (2011). The key concepts of gender studies were elaborated by J. Pilcher and I. Whelehan (2004). V. P. DeFrancisco, C. H. Palczewski and D. McGeough (2013) in their book "Gender in Communication: A Critical Introduction" revealed how communication constitutes gender. A comprehensive analysis of gender stereotypes was carried out by N. Ellemers (2018). A. Mitra, J. Bang and A. Biswas (2015) explored the impact of gender equality on economic growth. S. Storozhuk and I. Hoyan (2017) draw attention to the problem of gender inequality disclosing gender relations at different stages of social and cultural development of society. Most studies interpret gender inequality in terms of win – lose situation, in which men always win. But in fact, when it comes to inequality, both sides lose totally. Thus, a further research of a wide range of issues is needed to fully understand the origin, essence, and impact of gender inequality.
The purpose of the study is to define the negative impact of gender inequality on the global economy and public health. The author has used an integrative anthropological approach, systematic approach to the study of social objects, interpretative research paradigm, cross-cultural and multidisciplinary analysis, analysis of secondary data collected from reports, journals, and other periodicals.
Statement of basic materials
It goes without saying that equality per se does not exist in nature; it is rather a mental construct that arises within the world of culture, not within the world of nature. A long-lasting struggle for equality contributed to a significant improvement in the living standards of people and their happiness, although like any ideal full equality is unattainable. Today, however, the denial of the need for equal rights is considered mauvais ton. The contemporary world declares that all people are equal (or should be). For example, the United States Declaration of Independence claims: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" (1776). According to the Constitution of Ukraine (1996), "All people are free and equal in their dignity and rights. Human rights and freedoms are inalienable and inviolable".
When it comes to gender equality, we hear the voices of the proponents of the so-called traditional values (Petersen, 2016) who are against gender equality, as well as the very concept of gender. They criticize the feminist anthropology, which is associated with Marxism; the notion of gender is referred to as an unnecessary symbolic social construct that is not related to biological sex, while forgetting that the human world is largely the world of symbols. Among critics are men who perceive gender equality as a grave threat to their morals, interests, and Ego; women who are ready to obey the men’s world because of the seeming benefits it can bring, as well as the respite from responsibility it promises (Beauvoir, 2011); religious organizations, which see in the concept of gender the decline of the traditional values, etc. Thus, the Orwellian glorious phrase "All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others" comes to life.
The notion "gender" describes social or cultural differences associated with sex, while the term "sex" refers to the physical/physiological differences between men and women and includes both primary and secondary sexual characteristics. The sex of a person determined by her/his biological features does not always coincide with her/his gender. The dichotomous view of gender is inherent in certain cultures and is not universal: in some cultures gender is considered to be fluid.
In the past, some anthropologists used the term berdache to refer to individuals who occasionally or permanently dressed and lived as the opposite gender. The practice has been noted among certain Aboriginal groups. Samoan culture accepts what they refer to as a "third gender". Fa’afafine, which translates as "the way of the woman", is a term used to describe individuals who are born biologically male but embody both masculine and feminine traits. Fa’afafines are considered an important part of Samoan culture. Individuals from other cultures may mislabel them as homosexuals because fa’afafines have a varied sexual life that may include men or women. (Little et al., 2013, p. 369)
Gender is a complex interconnection of three dimensions: body, identity, and expression. The body dimension, as a rule, is represented by two sexes – male and female, although there are intersexual people. The body acquires a gender perspective according to cultural expectations. Gender identity is the extent to which a person identifies her/himself as a woman or a man (Diamond, 2002); it is related to our internal experience. Gender identity may coincide with biological sex (Cisgender person) or does not match the sex assigned at birth (Transgender person). Gender is represented by spectrum of identities. The third dimension is our gender expression, which is manifested in clothing, accessories, makeup, manners, preferences, behavior conditioned by society (Understanding Gender, 2018). The adopted gender roles and expectations are so embedded in our culture that most people do not even imagine the other way of life. Gender expectations can severely restrict personality development and be even very dangerous. For example, patriarchal values and gender expectations lay the foundations for self-identity and gender identity. The basic concept of the patriarchy – male domination and female subordination – creates a gender hierarchy, a rigid system of domination-subordination, which, in turn, forms certain power structures and differentiates access to economic, political, social, and cultural resources. Mechanical, robotic reproduction of these outdated gender schemes does not meet the requirements of the further development of humanity.
Unequal treatment of individuals based on gender discrimination has led to negative consequences in various areas of society. Ensuring equal rights and opportunities for men and women are fair and just not only in terms of moral point of view, but also in terms of economic development, which is an essential lever for the development of a global society. According to a report released by the World Bank Group, with support from the Canadian government, global wealth, if women had the same lifetime earnings as men, would increase by $ 23,620 per person for a total of $ 160 trillion. World Bank CEO K. Georvieva emphasizes that gender inequality is so costly for the world due to the lack of representation of women in the labor market, gender income inequality situation, glass ceiling effect that have the negative impact on the world economy. In the regions with the largest aging population, the insufficient representation of women in the labor market should be compensated with more migration that entails turbulence in society (Georgieva, & Bibeau, 2018; OHagan, 2018; Wiley, 2016).
The economic growth is adversely affected by the birth rate: low education correlates with high pregnancy rates (Klasen, & Lamanna, 2009). This leads to a situation in which the able-bodied population is no longer capable of maintaining a sufficient economic level for the entire society. Lowering standard of living generates social tension that may cause migration to the more prosperous and stable regions (Kolesnykova, 2017). Migrants often follow patriarchal role models and gender stereotypes in a new environment reproducing the previous situation. This vicious circle has a negative impact on the economy, as well as on social, political, cultural life, "leaving our societies operating at under 50 per cent capacity" ("What are the consequences of gender inequality", 2018).
To overcome gender inequality, it is necessary to create an effective system for supporting women; ensure equitable access to finance and entrepreneurial support; recognize women’s leadership skills.
Privileges, violence, injustice, and impunity are tightly interconnected. Aggressive, violent behavior is usually perceived as an integral part of male behavior, thus, violence is masculinized. Various forms of violence are directed towards women and certain groups of men, who do not meet the standards of masculinity, often for self-affirmation or for pleasure. Gender inequality is harmful and has a negative impact on health including psychological distress, low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, concealed anger, somatic disorders, etc. (Kira, Ashby, Lewandowski, Smith, & Odenat, 2012). Outdated gender roles, which are inconsistent with the new reality and the idea of human progress, have a significant impact on life expectancy, health, mortality and disease, access to health care and medical care. There is a significant gender wage and pension gap, which can lead to poverty and social exclusion of women (especially the elderly). Unpaid homework as a part of the traditional female gender role adversely affects their health and well-being (The Impact of Gender Inequality on Health, undated). Gender inequality associated with socio-economic inequality has a negative impact on health at the level of the whole country (Borrell et al., 2014; Eckersley, 2015).
Gender inequality is a huge loss of human potential both for women and for men. Speaking about gender inequality, we tend to focus on women and their problems. However, gender inequality is an issue that affects men either. Strict rules regarding the gender and power differences between certain groups of men mean that many men are vulnerable to violence and are less inclined to seek medical assistance than women. In mail-dominated cultures, the alpha male standard does not allow a man to recognize his real problems, to be vulnerable and sensitive. Instead, he must embody perfect superman who would rather die than reveal his real feelings. Culturally prevailing norms of masculinity are directly related to the high level of depressive disorders and suicidal behavior of men who are not in line with the traditional system of expectations (Emslie, Ridge, Ziebland, & Hunt, 2006; Evans, Frank, Oliffe, & Gregory, 2011). Men trying to succeed in life within traditional gender stereotypes often exhibit high level of distress that leads to psychosomatic disorders (Yu, 2018). Emma Watson, British actress and UN Women Goodwill Ambassador, during her groundbreaking "HeForShe" speech at the UN stated:
We want to end gender inequality – and to do that we need everyone to be involved…
Men – I would like to take this opportunity to extend your formal invitation. Gender equality is your issue too. Because to date, I’ve seen my father’s role as a parent being valued less by society despite my needing his presence as a child as much as my mother’s. I’ve seen young men suffering from mental illness unable to ask for help for fear it would make them look less "macho" – in fact in the UK suicide is the biggest killer of men between 20-49 years of age; eclipsing road accidents, cancer and coronary heart disease. I’ve seen men made fragile and insecure by a distorted sense of what constitutes male success. Men don’t have the benefits of equality either…
If men don’t have to be aggressive in order to be accepted, women won’t feel compelled to be submissive. If men don’t have to control, women won’t have to be controlled. Both men and women should feel free to be sensitive. Both men and women should feel free to be strong… It is time that we all perceive gender on a spectrum not as two opposing sets of ideals. If we stop defining each other by what we are not and start defining ourselves by what we are – we can all be freer and this is what HeForShe is about. It’s about freedom. (Watson, 2014)
Thus, the denial and neglect of gender inequality hide not only the danger of discriminatory actions against those who are different, but also cause a profound problem for our own identity, self-actualization within it, and life in harmony with ourselves and the world.
In the 21st century, the understanding of the world is undergoing drastic changes that lead to the new explanation and exploration of reality. Contemporary society is at a point of transition from one stage of human development to another when a critical decision must be made. This is evidenced by the reduction of the social space of the prevailing socio-cultural and axiological systems; decrease in the number of people who faithfully support a dominant ideology; increase in the number of interpretations of the dominant system of values, as well as attempts to explain a new worldview; mutual mistrust between social actors. The vector of the development of the human society changes its direction, which leads to a renewal of an individual status-role framework, the creation of the new systems of values, theories and ideologies that require a new field of opportunities and free human self-identification and gender-identification.
The results show that gender inequality has a negative impact on economic growth and development, as well as on physical and mental health. Strictly fixed gender roles limit free human development: even a slight deviation from them can lead to disapproval and negative sanctions. Gender stereotypes ignore the very fact of the differences of individuals within a certain gender group, hinder the development of their own projects of the future and effective models of behavior that are in line with the level of contemporary development of society (Danylova, 2017; Khmil, & Korkh, 2017).
Today gender issue is not about confrontation between men and women – it is ever more urgent to speak about individual choices. As J.-P. Sartre (1946) declared, "Man is nothing else but that which he makes of himself". Within the gender continuum, each of us can find such behaviors that meet our aspirations, hopes, values, our own vision of our self and our place in the world. It is very important not to force people to unfairly take the burden, not to limit women and men within certain expectations based on ascribed gender roles, if that does not work for them. Everyone should have the right to determine her/his gender, her/his interests and behavior patterns, while having the right to personal respect and respect for their honor, convictions, and gender practices.
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Т. В. ДАНИЛОВА1*, Л. А. КАЦ2*
університет біоресурсів і природокористування
України (Київ, Україна), ел. пошта firstname.lastname@example.org,
2*Хайфський університет (Хайфа, Ізраїль),
ел. пошта email@example.com,
ТВАРИНИ РІВНІ, АЛЕ ДЕЯКІ ТВАРИНИ
РІВНІШІ ЗА ІНШИХ": НЕГАТИВНИЙ ВПЛИВ
ГЕНДЕРНОЇ НЕРІВНОСТІ НА ГЛОБАЛЬНУ
ЕКОНОМІКУ ТА СТАН ЗДОРОВ’Я НАСЕЛЕННЯ
Мета. Метою дослідження є визначення негативного впливу гендерної нерівності на глобальну економіку та стан здоров’я населення. Теоретичний базис. Нерівне ставлення до індивідів, засноване на гендерній дискримінації, призвело до негативних наслідків у різних сферах суспільства. Гендерна нерівність дуже дорого коштує для світу через недостатню представленість жінок на ринку праці, нерівні з чоловіками доходи, ефект "скляної стелі", що мають негативний вплив на світову економіку. Застарілі гендерні ролі, які не відповідають новій реальності та ідеї прогресу людства, істотно впливають на очікувану тривалість життя, стан здоров’я, ризики смертності та захворювань, доступ до медичних послуг та отримання медичної допомоги. Наукова новизна. Вектор розвитку сучасного суспільства змінює свій напрямок, що призводить до зміни певного статусно-рольового каркасу особистості, виникнення нових систем цінностей, теорій та ідеологій, які потребують нового поля можливостей і вільної самоідентифікації та гендерної ідентифікації людини у ньому. Висновки. Результати дослідження демонструють, що гендерна нерівність негативно впливає як на зростання глобальної економіки, так і на стан фізичного й психічного здоров’я кожного індивіда. Жорстко закріплені гендерні ролі обмежують вільний розвиток людини. Кожна людина повинна мати можливість визначати свій гендер, пов’язані з ним інтереси та моделі поведінки, маючи право на особисту повагу та повагу до своєї честі, переконань і гендерних практик.
Ключові слова: гендер; гендерна нерівність; права людини; економічний розвиток; фізичне та психічне здоров’я; глобальне суспільство
Т. В. ДАНИЛОВА1*, Л. А. КАЦ2*
университет биоресурсов и природопользования
Украины (Киев, Украина),
эл. почта firstname.lastname@example.org,
2*Хайфский университет (Хайфа, Израиль),
эл. почта email@example.com,
"ВСЕ ЖИВОТНЫЕ РАВНЫ, НО
ЖИВОТНЫЕ РАВНЕЕ ДРУГИХ": НЕГАТИВНОЕ
ВЛИЯНИЕ ГЕНДЕРНОГО НЕРАВЕНСТВА
НА ГЛОБАЛЬНУЮ ЭКОНОМИКУ И
СОСТОЯНИЕ ЗДОРОВЬЯ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ
Цель. Целью исследования является определение негативного влияния гендерного неравенства на глобальную экономику и состояние здоровья населения. Теоретический базис. Неравное отношение к индивидам, основанное на гендерной дискриминации, привело к негативным последствиям в различных сферах общества. Гендерное неравенство очень дорого стоит всему миру из-за недостаточной представленности женщин на рынке труда, неравных с мужчинами доходов, эффекта "стеклянного потолка", имеющих негативное влияние на мировую экономику. Устаревшие гендерные роли, не соответствующие новой реальности и идее прогресса человечества, существенно влияют на ожидаемую продолжительность жизни, состояние здоровья, риски смертности и заболеваний, доступ к медицинским услугам и получение медицинской помощи. Научная новизна. Вектор развития современного общества меняет свое направление, что приводит к изменению определенного статусно-ролевого каркаса личности, возникновению новых систем ценностей, теорий и идеологий, которые требуют нового поля возможностей, свободной самоидентификации и гендерной идентификации человека в нем. Выводы. Результаты исследования показывают, что гендерное неравенство негативно влияет как на рост глобальной экономики, так и на состояние физического и психического здоровья каждого индивида. Жестко закрепленные гендерные роли ограничивают свободное развитие человека. Каждый человек должен иметь возможность сам определять свой гендер, связанные с ним интересы и модели поведения, имея право на личное уважение и уважение своего достоинства, убеждений и гендерных практик.
Ключевые слова: гендер;
гендерное неравенство; права человека;
экономическое развитие; физическое
и психическое здоровье; глобальное общество
doi: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i15.168842 © T. V. Danylova, L. A. Kats, 2019
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.