THE EXISTENTIAL AND THE SPIRITUAL IN THE EXISTENTIAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF G. MARCEL AND E. MINKOWSKI
Purpose. To examine the existential anthropology of G. Marcel and E. Minkowski, in order to demonstrate the necessity of distinguishing the universal-spiritual, as human in human being, apart from the individual-existential in him, and to reveal the hierarchical correlation of biosocial, existential and spiritual spheres in personality. Theoretical basis. Within existential philosophy the author differentiates two separate traditions and proceeds from the insufficiency of the distinction of existential sphere, proposed by phenomenological tradition, showing the necessity of its correlation with the spiritual sphere as a sphere of humanity, proposed by non-phenomenological tradition of G. Marcel and E. Minkowski. Originality. The author presents the anthropological conception of G. Marcel and E. Minkowski, in which human personality is understood as unity of individual-existential and universal-spiritual, which requires a special trans-empirical field of culture, which contains senses, images and symbols of humanity. Also, the author presents the recent developments of existential thinkers in distinguishing existential and spiritual dimensions, both not reducible to the physical and social dimensions. Conclusions. In both existential traditions, the specifically human was founded as a trans-biological and trans-social phenomenon, which appears as indefinable and non-predetermined. But in first tradition (M. Heidegger, J.-P. Sartre), humanity is understood as an existence, as a unique individuality, "project", variant of humanity, equivalent to other variants, and universal is understood as a community of human condition in the world. While in the second tradition (G. Marcel, E. Minkowski, also V. Frankl), the universal is understood as spiritual. Thus, horizontal level of our private existence, as the process of movement from birth to death, is supplemented by vertical of human, universal ideals and images. Humanity appears as a task, on the way to which human being transcends beyond the limits of his individual "self" to the "super-individual", through inclusion into spiritual community, into universal culture.
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GOST Style Citations
Bennett, J. The Meaning of the binge drinking: a phenomenological study of women who go on big nights out / J. Bennet, E. van Deurzen // Existential analysis: Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis. – 2017. – Vol. 28, Iss. 2. – P. 247–262.
Cooper, M. Existential Therapies / M. Cooper. – London : SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017. – 170 p.
De Koninck, T. Les homes contre I’humain / T. De Koninck // Maladie, mort, naissance : Le Bulletin 2014–2015 / Presence de Gabriel Marcel. – Paris, 2015. – P. 7–40.
Deurzen, E. van. Everyday Mysteries: A Handbook of Existential Psychotherapy / E. van Deurzen. – 2nd Edit. – London : Routledge, 2010. – 370 p.
Deurzen, E. van. Structural Existential Analysis (SEA): A Phenomenological Research Method for Counselling Psychology / E. van Deurzen // Counselling Psychology Review. – 2014. – Vol. 29, No. 2. – P. 70–83.
Frankl, V. Man ‘s Search for Ultimate Meaning / V. Frankl. – New York : Perseus, 2000. – 191 p.
Marcel, G. The Mystery of Being / G. Marcel. – Chicago : Henry Regnery company, 1964. – Vol. 1 : Reflection and Mystery. – 221 p.
Marcel, G. Essai de philosophie concrète: idées n° 119 / G. Marcel. – Paris : Gallimard, 1967. –383 p.
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Piette, A. The Volume of Being: Reflections on an Anthropological Science [Virtual Resource] / Albert Piette // Working Papers Series № 19. – 2015. – 7 p. – Access Mode: http://openanthcoop.net/press/2015/12/22/the-volume-of-being/ – Title from Screen. – Date of Access: 08 October 2018.
Piette, A. Separate Humans. Anthropology, Ontology, Existence / A. Piette. – Milan : Mimesis International. – 2016. – 90 p.
Veto, M. La metaphysique de la paternite / M. Veto // Maladie, Mort, Naissance : Le Bulletin 2014–2015 / Presence de Gabriel Marcel. – Paris, 2015. – P. 41–60.
Знаков, В. В. Экзистенциальный опыт / В. В. Знаков, Н. А. Касавина, Ю. В. Синеокая // Философский журнал. – 2018. – Т. 11, № 2. – С. 123–137. doi: 10.21146/2072-0726-2018-11-2-123-137
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