WELTKRIEGSPHILOSOPHIE AND SCHELER'S PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

V. Y. Popov, E. V. Popova

Abstract


Purpose. The research is aimed at understanding the philosophical and journalistic heritage of M. Scheler during 1914-1919. "The philosophy of war" is regarded as the middle link between the phenomenological and anthropological stages of its philosophical evolution.  The theoretical and methodological basis of the study is the philosophical legacy of Max Scheler, as well as the work of domestic and Western researchers devoted to this issue. Problems of Weltkriegsphilosophie become comprehensible based on the historical, logical and comparative principles of historical and philosophical analysis, which allowed to theoretically reconstruct the cultural and historical context, philosophical sources and ideological intentions of the German philosopher. Originality. For the first time in domestic historical and philosophical thought, it proved that the works by Max Scheler of the First World War played an outstanding role in the formation of philosophical anthropology as a separate philosophical trend. Conclusions. The basis of the Weltkriegsphilosophie by Max Scheler is the philosophical comprehension of the war in which the thinker tries to see the high sacral meaning, where the sacrifices that the nation brings to the altar of victory are not in vain: the nation is rallying this sacrifice, its readiness for it. According to Scheler, war is the most effective means of forming the so-called "love communities", to which he refers combat brotherhood, family and nation as a "collective personality", which recognizes itself through war. The philosopher is disappointed to some part with militaristic enthusiasm in his later military journalistic works and calls for a spiritual and moral renewal of Europe, fed from Christian roots. At the heart of this renewal should be the principle of personal solidarity, based on the Christian idea of love. However, Catholic universalism is an insufficient means for the formation of a "love community" and a new man who is co-creator of God that constitutes the main core of the philosophical anthropology of Max Scheler, which emerges in the 20s of the twentieth century. Based on this, the article affirms the existence in Sheler’s works of an intermediate stage between his phenomenology and philosophical anthropology – Weltkriegsphilosophie (philosophy of the World War).


Keywords


philosophical anthropology; Weltkriegsphilosophie (philosophy of the World War); "community of love"; European patriotism; German particularism; Catholic universalism

References


Allodi, L. (2016). Guerra e pace tra filosofia della storia e sociologia della cultura, saggio introduttivo alla traduzione italiana. In M. Scheler, Lidea di pace perpetua e il pacifism (pp. 7-102). L. Allodi, Trans. Milano: Mimesis. (in Italian)

Bokhenskiy, Y. M. (2000). Europaische philosophie der gegenwart. M. N. Gretskiy, Trans. Moscow: Nauchnyy mir. (in Russian)

Caronello, G. (2003). Max Scheler und Carl Schmitt, zwei Positionen des katholischen Renouveau in Deutschland. Eine Fallstudie über die Summa (1917/1918). In C. Bermes, W. Heckmann, & H. Leonardy (Eds.), Vernuft und Gefühl: Schelers Phänomenologie des emotionalen Lebens (pp. 225-254). Würzburg: Verlag Königshausen und Neuman GmbH. (in German)

De Warren, N. (2017). The Splendor of Glittering Helmets: Dawn of the Great War in Proust. Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 79(4), 89-108. (in English)

De Warren, N., & Vongehr, T. (Eds.). (2018). Philosophers at the Front: Phenomenology and the First World War. Leuven: Leuven University Press. (in English)

Heidegger, M. (1975). Andenken an Max Scheler. In P. Good (Ed.), Max Scheler im Gegenwartsgeschehen der Philosophie (p. 9). Bonn: Bouvier Verlag. (in German)

Hoeres, P. (2004). Krieg der Philosophen: Die deutsche und britische Philosophie im Ersten Weltkrieg. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh. (in German)

Kagan, M. I. (2001). Paul Natorp i krizis kultury. In M. M. Bakhtin, Pro et Contra. Lichnost i tvorchestvo M. M. Bakhtina v otsenke russkoy i mirovoy gumanitarnoy mysli: Antologiya (Vol. 1, pp. 39-57). Saint Petersburg: Russian Christian Humanitarian Academy. (in Russian)

Malinkin, A. N. (1996). Maks Sheler: Ocherk zhizni i tvorchestva. Sociological Journal, 1-2, 117-121. (in Russian)

Scheler, M. (1915). Das Ressentiment im Aufbau der Moralen. In M. Scheler, Abhandlungen und Aufsätze (Vol. 1, pp. 39-274). Lepzig: Verlag der weissen Bücher. (in German)

Sheler, M. (1994). Die Stellung des Menschen im Kosmos. In M. Sheler, & A. V. Denezhkin (Ed.), Izbrannye proizvedeniya (pp.129–194). A. V. Denezhkin, A. P. Malinkin, & A. F. Fillipov, Trans. from Germ. Moscow: Gnozis. (in Russian)

Scheler, M. (1917). Die Ursachen des Deutschenhasses. In M. Scheler, Politisch-Pädagogische Schriften (Vol. 4, pp. 283-372). Bern: Francke. (in German)

Scheler, M. (1917). "1789 und 1914". In M. Scheler, Politisch-Pädagogische Schriften (Vol. 4, pp. 584-599). Bern: Francke. (in German)

Scheler, M. (1918). Deutschlands Sendung und der katholische Gedanke. In M. Scheler, Politisch-Pädagogische Schriften (Vol. 4, pp. 515-540). Bern: Francke. (in German)

Scheler, M. (1915). Der Genius des Krieges und der Deutsche Krieg. In M. Scheler, Politisch-Pädagogische Schriften (Vol. 4, pp. 7-250). Bern: Francke. (in German)

Scheler, M. (1915). Europa und der Krieg. In M. Scheler, Politisch-Pädagogische Schriften (Vol. 4, pp. 251-266). Bern: Francke. (in German)

Sheler, M. (2007). Philosophische Fragmente aus dem Nachlass. M. Khorkov, Trans. from Germ. Moscow: Institut filosofii, teologii i istorii svyatogo Fomy. (in Russian)

Scheler, M. (1916). Über die Nationalideen der großen Nationen. In M. Scheler, Schriften zur Soziologie und Weltanschauungslehre (Vol. 6, pp. 62-285). Bern: Francke. (in German)

Sternad, C. (2017). Max Scheler and Jan Patočka on the First World War. Labyrinth, 19(1), 89-106. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.25180/lj.v19i1.74 (in English)

Tumminelli, A. (2016-2017). Max Scheler sullamore. Tra fenomenologia eLebensphilosophie. Roma: Università La Sapienza. (in Italian)


GOST Style Citations


Allodi, L. Guerra e pace tra filosofia della storia e sociologia della cultura, saggio introduttivo alla traduzione italiana / L. Allodi // Scheler, M. L’idea di pace perpetua e il pacifism / M. Scheler ; Traduttore : L. Allodi. – Milano : Mimesis, 2016. – P. 7–102.

Бохенский, Ю. М. Современная европейская философия / Ю. М. Бохенский ; пер. М. Н. Грецкого. – Москва : Научный мир, 2000. – 256 с.

Caronello, G. Max Scheler und Carl Schmitt, zwei Positionen des katholischen Renouveau in Deutschland. Eine Fallstudie über die Summa (1917/1918) / G. Caronello // Vernuft und Gefühl: Schelers Phänomenologie des emotionalen Lebens / hrsg. von C. Bermes, W. Heckmann, H. Leonardy. – Würzburg, 2003. – S. 225–254.

De Warren, N. The Splendor of Glittering Helmets: Dawn of the Great War in Proust / N. de Warren // Tijdschrift voor Filosofie. 2017. – Vol. 79, Is. 4. – P. 89–108.

Philosophers at the Front: Phenomenology and the First World War / Éds. par N. de Warren, T. Vongehr.– Leuven : Leuven University Press, 2018. – 250 р.

Heidegger, M. Andenken an Max Scheler / M. Heidegger // Max Scheler im Gegenwartsgeschehen der Philosophie / hrsg. von P. Good. – Bonn : Bouvier, 1975. – S. 9.

Hoeres, P. Krieg der Philosophen: Die deutsche und britische Philosophie im Ersten Weltkrieg / P. Hoeres. – Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 2004. – 365 s.

Каган, M. И. Пауль Наторп и кризис культуры / M. И. Каган // Pro et Contra. Личность и творчество М. М. Бахтина в оценке русской и мировой гуманитарной мысли: антология / М. М. Бахтин. – Санкт-Петербург, 2001. – Т. 1. – С. 39–57.

Малинкин, А. Н. Макс Шелер: очерк жизни и творчества / А. Н. Малинкин // Социологический журнал. – 1996. – № 1–2. – С. 117–121.

Scheler, M. Das Ressentiment im Aufbau der Moralen / M. Scheler // Scheler, M. Abhandlungen und Aufsätze : in 2 bänden / M. Scheler. – Lepzig, 1915. – Band I. – S. 39–274.

Шелер, М. Положение человека в космосе / М. Шелер // Шелер, М. Избранные произведения / М. Шелер ; перевод с нем. А. В. Денежкина, А. П. Малинкина., А. Ф. Филлипова ; под ред. А. В. Денежкина. – Москва : Гнозис, 1994. – C. 129–194.

Scheler, M. Die Ursachen des Deutschenhasses / M. Scheler // Scheler, M. Politisch-Pädagogische Schriften / M. Scheler. – Bern, 1917. – Band 4. – S. 283–372.

Scheler, M. "1789 und 1914" / M. Scheler // Scheler, M. Politisch-Pädagogische Schriften / M. Scheler. – Bern, 1917. – Band 4. – S. 584–599.

Scheler, M. Deutschlands Sendung und der katholische Gedanke / M. Scheler // Scheler, M. Politisch-Pädagogische Schriften / M. Scheler. – Bern, 1918. – Band 4. – S. 515–540.

Scheler, M. Der Genius des Krieges und der Deutsche Krieg / M. Scheler // Scheler, M. Politisch-Pädagogische Schriften / M. Scheler. – Bern, 1915. – Band 4. – S. 7–250.

Scheler, M. Europa und der Krieg / M. Scheler // Scheler, M. Politisch-Pädagogische Schriften / M. Scheler. – Bern, 1915. – Band 4. – S. 251–266.

Шелер, М. Философские фрагменты из рукописного наследия / М. Шелер ; перевод с нем. М. Хорькова. – Москва : Институт философии, теологии и истории св. Фомы, 2007. – 384 с.

Scheler, M. Über die Nationalideen der großen Nationen / M. Scheler // Scheler, M. Schriften zur Soziologie und Weltanschauungslehre / M. Scheler. – Bern, 1916. – Band 6. – S. 62–285.

Sternad, C. Max Scheler and Jan Patočka on the First World War / C. Sternad // Labyrinth. – 2017. – Vol. 19, № 1. – P. 89–106. doi: 10.25180/lj.v19i1.74

Tumminelli, A. Max Scheler sull’amore. Tra fenomenologia eLebensphilosophie / A. Tuminelli. – Roma : Università La Sapienza, 2016–2017. – 182 р.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i13.132598

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.