THE SOCIO-ANTHROPOLOGICAL IDEAS IN THE AMERICAN CRITICAL REALISM (GEORGE SANTAYANA)

V. M. Petrushov, I. V. Tolstov

Abstract


Purpose. The purpose of the article is to analyze George Santayana’s socio-anthropological ideas, which are presented in his works The Life of Reason: or The Phases of Human Progress and Dominations and Powers: Reflections on Liberty, Society and Government. Realization of the purpose will provide fresh insight into the problem of finding the value basis of modern human existence, ways of improving self-knowledge with the aim of further self-realization and development of the latent potential. Methodology. The methodological basis of the investigation is a pluralistic strategy that combines historical-philosophical analysis and the socio- anthropological approach. Originality. Santayana’s ideas about the human and society may seem utopian in the context of the realities of modern life. On the other hand, his concept that the vital mission of humans is to live the way they were destined to remains topical. Acceptance of one’s fate leads not to inaction and self-denial but to self-knowledge and action, to self-expression in science, poetry, religion and art, to realization of one's true mission, which is of a culture creator. His idea about the primary role of the USA in establishing a rational and fair world order is also topical. Conclusions. The way to self-realization of the human being is through the self-knowledge in the Socratic sense and the scientific knowledge of the world around. The objective of the scientific cognition does not imply that reason should guide life, but that it may help to achieve a certain harmony between the conflicting desires, passions and ambitions of the human being, and the vital «impulses» of different people or countries by means of a compromise. Reason may help to rationalize life, at least partially, so that it could become more stable and safe to ensure happiness and freedom, which are the greatest desires of every human being.


Keywords


human being; reason; spirit; freedom; happiness; family; society

References


Bazaluk, O. (2017). The Strategies of Systematization of the Theories of Education. The Main Meaning and Features of the Theories of Education of Plato’s and Isocrates’ Lines. Future Human Image, 7, 11–27. (In English)

Brodrick, M. (2015) The ethics of detachment in Santayana's philosophy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. (In English)

Flamm, M. C., Rea, J. A., & Patella, G. (Eds.). (2014). George Santayana at 150: international interpretations. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. (In English)

Grossman, M., & Coleman, M. A. (Ed.). (2014). Art and morality: essays in the spirit of George Santayana. New York: Fordham University Press. (In English)

Moreno, D. (2015). Santayana the philosopher: philosophy as a form of life. Lanham, Maryland: Bucknell University Press. (In English)

Kerr-Lawson, A., & Saatkamp, H. J. (undated). Overheard in Seville: Bulletin of the Santayana Society. Indianapolis: Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis. Published annualy. (In English)

Santayana, G. (1995). Dominations and Powers: Reflections on Liberty, Society and Government. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Scribner's. (In English)

Santayana, G., & Edman, I. (Ed.), (1936). The Philosophy of Santayana: Selections from All the Works of George Santayana. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. (In English)

Santayana, G., & Cory, D. (Ed.), (1995). The birth of reason & other essays. New York: Columbia University Press. (In English)

Santayana, G., & Wokeck, M. S., Coleman, M. A. (Eds.), (2013). The life of reason, or, The phases of human progress Book 2, Reason in society. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. (In English)

Yalcin, M. O. (2013). Naturalism's philosophy of the sacred: Justus Buchler, Karl Jaspers, and George Santayana. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. (In English)


GOST Style Citations


  1. Bazaluk, O. The Strategies of Systematization of the Theories of Education. The Main Meaning and Features of the Theories of Education of Plato’s and Isocrates’ Line / O. Bazaluk // Future Human Image. – 2017. – Vol. 7. – P. 11–27.
  2. Brodrick, M. The ethics of detachment in Santayana's philosophy / M. Brodrick, Miami University, USA. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire. – New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. – 174 p.
  3. George Santayana at 150 : international interpretations / edited by M. C. Flamm, J. A. Rea, and G. Patella. – Lanham, MD : Lexington Books, 2014. – 280 p.
  4. Grossman, M. Art and morality: essays in the spirit of George Santayana / M. Grossman ; edited by M. A. Coleman. – New York : Fordham University Press, 2014. – 315 p.
  5. Moreno, D. Santayana the philosopher : philosophy as a form of life / D. Moreno ; translated by Ch. Padrón. – Lanham, Maryland : Bucknell University Press, 2015. – 195 p.
  6. Overheard in Seville: Bulletin of the Santayana Society / edited by A. Kerr-Lawson and H. J. Saatkamp. – Jr. Indianapolis : Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis. Published annualy.
  7. Santayana, G. Dominations and Powers: Reflections on Liberty, Society and Government / G. Santayana. – New Brunswick, New Jersey .: Scribner's, 1995. – 481 p.
  8. Santayana, G. The Philosophy of Santayana: Selections from All the Works of George Santayana / G. Santayana ; edited by I. Edman. – New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936. – 587 p.
  9. Santayana, G. The birth of reason & other essays / G. Santayana ; edited by D. Cory. – New York : Columbia University Press, 1995. – 186 p.
  10. Santayana, G. The life of reason, or, The phases of human progress Book 2, Reason in society / G. Santayana ; co-edited by M. S. Wokeck and M A. Coleman ; with an introduction by J. Gouinlock. – Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2013. – 249 p.
  11. Yalcin, M. O. Naturalism's philosophy of the sacred: Justus Buchler, Karl Jaspers, and George Santayana / M. O. Yalcin. – Lanham, Maryland : Lexington Books, 2013. – 137 p.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/ampr.v0i12.105904

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.